Th1L05 Lipids and membrane structure


Medicine Y1 (Theme 1 | Cells and organelles) Flashcards on Th1L05 Lipids and membrane structure, created by Emma Allde on 16/08/2016.
Emma Allde
Flashcards by Emma Allde, updated more than 1 year ago
Emma Allde
Created by Emma Allde over 7 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Hydrophilic component of a phospholipid polar head group
Examples of a polar head group found in phospholipids (4) serine, choline, ethanolamine, inositol
Polar head groups of phospholipids attach to what via what backbone of glycerol through a phosphate group
Hydrophobic component of a phospholipid Two fatty acyl side chains
The two fatty acyl side chains attach to what via what the glycerol backbone via ester bonds
Hydrophobic and hydrophilic components make phospholipids what amphipathic
Sphingomyelin is what Component of neural membrane of myelin
What makes sphingomyelin unique it lacks a glycerol backbone
What is the polar head of sphingomyelin choline
In sphingomyelin, the phosphate groups attach to what and what ceramide, a single fatty acyl chain
Components of a glycerol backbone CH2, CH, CH2 (across), two O down which attach to the fatty acid chains via an ester bond
Fully saturated FAs have how many double bonds none
Stearic acid Fully saturated, 18:0 18 carbon atoms in fatty acid, no double bonds
Palmitic acid FSFA; 16:0 16 carbon atoms in fatty acid, no double bonds
Myristic acid 14:0 14 carbon atoms in fatty acid, no double bonds, SFA
Mono-unsaturated FA has how many double bonds One double bond
Oleic acid 18:1 18 carbon atoms; 1 double bond
Poly-unsaturated FA has how many double bonds several
Arachidonic acid 20:4 20 carbon atoms, 4 double bonds
Delta indicates what position of double bonded in relation to the carboxyl group counting from the carboxyl terminal
A kink in a fatty acid represents what a double bond in a fatty acid
In cholesterol, what interacts with the polar head groups of the membrane phospholipids and sphingolipids Hydroxyl group (hydrophilic region)
The bulky steroid and the hydrocarbon chain are embedded in the_____________ , alongside the ________________ membrane, nonpolar fatty-acid chain of the other lipids
Lipid bilayers are described as asymmetrical
Phospholipids facing extracellular environment include Phosphatidylcholine; sphingomyelin
Phospholipids facing intracellular environment include Phosphatidylerserine, phosphatidylethanolamine
Phospholipids are generated where Within the cell
Fluidity is what the ease in which lipid molecules move about in the plane of bilayer
Fluidity is important in the regulation of what membrane function (e.g. movement of proteins, signalling, exocytosis)
Short chain fatty acids do what to fluidity Reduce the tendency of hydrocarbon chains to interact and hence increase fluidity
Kinks in unsaturated fatty acids do what to fluidity Result in less stable van der Waals interactions with other lipids and hence increase fluidity
High cholesterol does what to fluidity and what is the clinical relevance Restricts the random movement of polar heads, orders the lipid bilayer and decreases fluidity Alters cell shapes, impairs oxygen transport, destruction of red blood cells and anaemia
Cholesterol is rich in which regions of plasma membrane lipid rafts
When are cholesterols levels abnormal When content of red blood cells is increased by 20-60% above normal
Increased cholesterol content of red blood cell membranes is associated with what severe liver diseases e.g. Cirrhosis
What are the components of plasma membrane structure Hydrophobic regions, hydrophilic regions, proteins, glycoprotein, carbohydrate side chain
Carbohydrate side chain will usually face which direction out into the extracellular space
Membrane composition varies according to what cellular location
Carbohydrates only found in what of cells plasma membrane
Carbohydrates make up how much of the plasma membrane (%) 8%
What is the protein lipid ratio of the plasma membrane 1:1 protein : lipid
What is the protein lipid ratio of the outer mitochondrial membrane 1:1 protein : lipid
What is the protein lipid ratio of the inner mitochondrial membrane 3:1 protein: lipid ratio
What is the protein lipid ratio of the nuclear membrane 3:1 protein: lipid ratio
What is the most common lipid in the cell membrane phos/choline
Integral (intrinsic) proteins are found where Embedded in lipid bilayer, most span the entire bilayer
Transmembrane spanning domains of intrinsic proteins are either what or what alpha helices or beta sheets
Integral or intrinsic proteins usually serve what function Channel or transporter
Anchored proteins are usually found where anchored to membrane by covalently bound fatty acid (part of a glycolipid)
Alkaline phosphate is an example of what an enzyme; anchored protein
RAS is an example of what fatty acyl anchored protein signalling protein; relays information from the cell membrane
Peripheral (extrinsic) proteins are found where attached to the plasma membrane surface by ionic interactions with integral proteins or with polar head group of phospholipids
Spectrin is an example of what peripheral or extrinsic protein structural protein; on the cytoplasmic surface of erythrocytes
Phospholipase A2 is an example of what peripheral or extrinsic protein
Phospholipase A2 is capable of what cleave fatty acids from phospholipids
Sites of phospholipase A2 action (3) (1) Polar head (choline, ethanolomaine, myo-inositol) from phosphate group (PLD) (2) Phosphate group from glycerol backbone (PLC) (3) Remove the fatty acids (PLA1 - usually saturated), (PLA2, usually unsaturated)
High salt - urea treatment can remove which proteins peripheral proteins
Detergent (protein solution) can remove which proteins peripheral, anchored and integral proteins of the bilayer
Phospholipase can remove which proteins peripheral and anchored proteins of the bilayer
Detergents have a similar structure to what naturally occurring molecule and for what reason phospholipids with a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail
Detergent monomers form what detergent polymer micelles
Micelles + membrane proteins results in what two components water-soluble-lipid-detergent complex and water-soluble-lipid-detergent micelles
Removing detergent and adding phospholipids back to proteins allows you to do what study your protein of interest and its function
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