Human Anatomy Final


Flashcards for Human Anatomy Final
Flashcards by cierarosebernal3, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by cierarosebernal3 over 8 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Anatomy The structure of body parts
Physiology The function of the body parts and what they do and how they do it
Anterior Toward the front
Posterior Toward the back or behind
Superior Above or over top of
Inferior Below or toward the feet
Medial The middle or toward the midline
Lateral The outer side of the body
Proximal Near or closer to the attachment
Distal Away from the attachment
Superficial On the surface or shallow
Deep Away from the surface; further in
Cephalic head
Cephalic head
Orbital Eye socket
Pectoral Chest
Axillary Arm pit
Brachial Arm
Umbilical Navel (Belly Button)
Inguinal Groin
Coxal Hip
Antebrachial Forearm
Abdominal Stomach
Carpal Wrist
Patella Knee
Occipital Back of head
Vertebral Vertebrae
Gluteal Butt
Lumbar Lower back between ribs and hips
Femoral Thigh
Plantar Sole of foot
Tarsal Ankle
Sagittal Plane Cut in half down midline
Frontal Plane Cut in half with the posterior and anterior side
Transverse Plane Cut in half at midline
Function of: Integementary System Protect tissues
Function of: Muscular Movement
Function of: Nervous Controls body systems
Function of: Endocrine Coordinate and controls body systems (glandular tissue)
Function of: Cardiocascular Internal transport of dissolved materials
Function of: Lymphatic Internal defense and blood matenance
Function of: Respiratory Structure involved in exchange of gases; lungs nose etc.
Function of: Digestive Processing of food and absorption of nutrients
Function of: Urinary Regulation of blood chemistry via elimination of excess materials (water, salts, etc.)
Function of: Reproductive Systems Production of sex cells and hormones
Osteoclast Destroy cells; found in medullary cavity
Osteoblasts Form new bone tissue; found in periosteum or endosteum
Osteocytes Mature bone cells; found in the lacunae
Epiphyseal Plate/Disk A flat plate that causes lengthwise growth of a long bone
4 steps to bone repair: 1. Blood forms hematoma 2. Spongy bone forms close to developing blood vessels and fibrocartilage forms in more distant regions 3. Bony callus replaces cartilage 4.Osteoclasts remove excess bony tissue restoring new bone structure to original form
Ball & Socket Joint Ball shaped process of one bone fits into the cup-shaped socket of another Ex: Hips and shoulders
Saddle Joint Forms between bones whose articulating surfaces that both have concave and convex surfaces Ex: Carpal and metacarpals of the thumb
Hinge Joint Convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another Ex: Elbows and Knees
Pivot Joint A clindrical surface of one bone rotates within a ring formed by another Ex: Axis and atlas
Flexion Decreases the angles of a joint; brings two bones closer together
Extension Increases the angle between two bones; brings two bones apart
Abduction movement of a limb AWAY from midline
Adduction movement of a limb TOWARD the midline
Supination Forearm rotates laterally so palms face up (anterior)
Pronation Forearm rotates medially so palms face down (posterior)
Elevation movement in superior direction (mostly with facial muscles)
Circumduction movement of a limb extremely so that the distal end makes a circle
Tissue A group of cells that perform the same task
What are the 4 main types of tissue? Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, and Muscle
Epithelial tissue covers ALL body surfaces both inside and out and main glandular (gland) tissue Functions: Secretion and protection
Connective tissue Most abundant tissue in your body, binds structures together, provides support and protection
Muscle Tissue Tissue composed of elongated, excitable cells specialized for contraction
Nervous tissue Tissue containing excitable cells specialized for rapid transmitter of coded info to other cells Neurons: process and transmit info Neurologia: support cells
3 types of muscle tissue: Skeletal: Voluntary (striated) functions in body movement Smooth: In hollow organs, stomach; involuntary; functions in swallowing and movement of food Cardiac: Involuntary muscle in walls of heart
Sarcolemma The plasma of a muscle cell
Sarcoplasm the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber within the sarcolemma
T-Tubules Tiny invaginations of the sarcolemma
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum A specialized type of smooth ER that regulates the calcium ion concentration
Myofibril Actin or myosin containing structure
Myofilament A long filamentous organelle found within a muscle cell that has a banded appearance
Actin Thin, active; slide up past myosin
Myosin Thick; doesn't slide, but moves the actin filaments
Epimysium Tissue around an ENTIRE muscle belly
Perimysium Tissue bundle of muscle fibers (fasicles)
Endomysium Tissue around 1 muscle cell
Neuromuscular Junction Where a nerve fiber and a muscle fiber come together
troponin attached to the protein tropomyosin and lies within the groove between actin filaments in muscle tissue
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