Human Organisation and Homeostasis


Human organisation, body systems, directional terminology and homeostasis.
Mitch Cutts
Flashcards by Mitch Cutts, updated more than 1 year ago
Mitch Cutts
Created by Mitch Cutts about 3 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Abdominal Cavity. Contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of large intestine; the serous membrane of the of the abdominal cavity is the peritoneum.
Afferent pathway. Pathway from Receptor to Control Centre A neural pathway that conducts impulses from a sense organ toward the brain or spinal cord or from one brain region to another.
Anatomical position. The body is upright, directly facing the observer, feet flat and directed forward. The upper limbs are at the body’s sides with the palms facing forward.
Anatomy. The science of body structures and the relationships among them.
Anterior (Ventral). Nearer to or at the front of the body.
Atom. Smallest units of matter that participate in chemical reactions.
Cell. A combination of molecules. The basic structural and functional units of an organism that are composed of chemicals.
Control centre. Sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained, evaluates the input it receives from the receptors, and generates output commands when they are needed.
Cranial cavity. Formed by cranial bone and contains brain.
Deep (Internal). Away from the surface of the body.
Distal. Farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; father from the origination of a structure.
Posterior (Dorsal). Nearer to or at the back of the body.
Effector. Body structure that receives output from the control centre and produces a response or effect that changes the controlled condition.
Efferent pathway. Pathway from control Centre to effectors. Impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site.
Frontal/coronal plane. Divides the body or an organ into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.
Homeostasis. The condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body's internal environment due to the constant interaction of the body's many regulatory processes.
Inferior. Away from the head, or the lower part of a structure.
Lateral. Father from the midline.
Medial. Nearer to the midline (an imaginary vertical line that divides the body into equal right and left sides).
Median/midsagittal plane. When a plane passes through the midline of the body or an organ and divides it into equal right and left sides.
Mediastinum. Central portion of thoracic cavity between the lungs; extends from sternum to vertebral column and from fist rib to diaphragm; contains heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels.
Molecule. Two or more atoms joined together.
Negative feedback. Reserves a change in a controlled condition. Reverses a stimulus.
Organ. Structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues; they have specific functions and usually have recognisable shapes.
Organ System. Consists of relates organs with a common function.
Organism. Any living individual.
Pelvic cavity. Contains urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and internal organs of reproduction.
Pericardial cavity. A potential space between the layers of the pericardium that surrounds the heart.
Physiology. The science of body functions - how the body parts work.
Pleural cavities. A potential space between the layers of the pleura that surrounds a lung.
Positive feedback. The enhancing or amplification of an effect by its own influence on the process which gives rise to it. Enhances a stimulus.
Proximal. Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the origination of a structure.
Receptor. Body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input to a control centre.
Superficial (External). Towards or on the surface of the body.
Superior (Cephalic or Cranial). Towards the head, or the upper part of a structure.
Thoracic cavity. Chest cavity; contains pleural and pericardial cavities and the mediastinum.
Tissue. Groups of cells and the materials surrounding the that work together to perform a particular function.
Transverse plane. Divides the body or organ into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.
Vertebral canal. Formed by vertebral column and contains spinal cord and the beginnings of spinal nerves.
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