|What were the events leading up to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II?
|-German port of Kiel the sailors mutinied. -End of October 1918, refused to fight the British navy. -Marched to Berlin to demand abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II. -Kaiser abdicated.
|What was the date of the Kaiser's abdication?
|9th November 1918.
|Who was Friedrich Ebert?
|After the abdication of the Kaiser, he stepped in as the acting chancellor of Germany and chairman of SPD.
|What were the events AFTER the abdication of the Kaiser?
|-Friedrich Ebert set up Council of People's Representatives. -In the temporary government, Ebert was elected President. -11th November - Armistice with Allies.
|What was the name of the treaty signed with the Allies?
|The Treaty of Versailles.
|What were the 5 terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
|Rich Woman Make Terrible Windows: R - Reparations. W - War guilt. M - Military restrictions. T - Territorial changes. W - Weapon limitations.
|What was the 'Stab in the back' theory?
|-The common belief that the army was on the verge of winning the war, but were betrayed. -The betrayers (politicians) were called the 'November Criminals'. -All of this meant the Republic was DOOMED from the start.
|What 4 problems did the Treaty of Versailles caused for the Weimar Republic?
|-Crisis of the Ruhr. -Growth of Nationalism. -Weakened Reichstag. -The Kapp Putsch.
|Give 2 strengths of the Weimar Republic.
|-Most democratic country in the world (everybody over 20 had the vote). -State governments were continued = state traditions maintained.
|Give 3 'in the middle' opinions about the Weimar Republic.
|-PR meant all parties had FAIR share of Reichstag seats. --This often led to short-lived, coalition governments. -Article 48: President could protect Germany in a time of emergency. --This could be ABUSED: didn't define an emergency.
|Give 4 weakness of the Weimar Republic.
|-Free speech gave opposition groups freedom to attack new government. -NO changes to army or judiciary. -Voting system = issue carrying out unpopular policies. -President had power to appoint or dismiss Chancellor.
|When was the Spartacist Uprising?
|5th January 1919.
|What was the 'Spartacist League' and who were its leaders?
|-The German Communist Party inspired by the Russian Revolution. -Led by Rosa Luxembourg and Karl Libknecht.
|What were the events during the Spartacist Uprising (5th January)?
|-Spartacists took over government's newspaper and telegraph bureau. -Tried to organize a general strike in Berlin. -Badly organized. -Received LITTLE support from the people of Berlin.
|What were the events during the Spartacist Uprising (6th January)?
|-Ebert created volunteer force of 4,000 ex-soldiers, with help of army leaders. -Group called FREIKORPS. -They consisted of HARD men who liked to fight and HATED communism.
|What were the events during the Spartacist Uprising (15th January)?
|-Spartacists were CRUSHED. -Luxemburg and Liebknecht were arrested. -Both were shot and kill for 'resisting arrest' during transportation. -SHOCKED Ebert!
|What did the Spartacist Uprising show us (2 things)?
|-Highlighted the instability of the WR. -A socialist, left wing government were attacked by an even more left wing group.
|After the Spartacist uprising, what were the new republic reliant on and how did they obey this?
|-Dependent on support of the army. -For the support, Republic promised to not change leadership of army.
|When was the Kapp Putsch?
|Who were the Freikorps?
|-Ex-soldiers, mainly right-wing nationalists. -Used by Weimar gov. to squash Spartacist revolt. -Disbanded in 1920. -This was due to decrease in German army AND trying to take power in the Kapp Putsch.
|Who led the Freikorps?
|Dr. Wolfgang Kapp.
|What were the events of the Kapp Putsch?
|-March 1920 - Freikorps occupied Berlin. -Weimar government asked army to suppress Putsch. -WR also asked trade unions to organise a strike. -Army REFUSED, trade unions ACCEPTED. -General Strike caused CHAOS and Kapp couldn't rule Germany and was forced to flee.
|What was the positive outcome of the Kapp Putsch, 1920?
|It showed that the Republic had gained much support from the workers of Berlin.
|What was the negative outcome of the Kapp Putsch, 1920?
|Revealed LACK of support from the army who sympathized with aims of the Putsch.
|Were the Nazi party left or right wing?
|Extremely right wing.
|What were the Nazi Party's policies from 1920-1922 (4 policies)?
|-Nationalism. -Socialism. -Anti-communism. -Antisemitism.
|What were the three major challenges of 1923?
|-Munich Putsch. -Hyperinflation. -Invasion of the Ruhr.
|What was hyperinflation?
|The extreme increase in prices in a short time.
|What were the five events leading up to hyperinflation (timeline)?
|-1914-18: Gov. printed more money to pay for WW1, but didn't have more gold. -1918-22: Weimar government printed more money for post-war shortages and asked for longer pay for first reparations installment. -January 1923 - French troops invaded Ruhr, taking raw good and materials. German workers went on strike. -This caused Weimar government to print off MORE money to pay strikers and make up for loss of materials. -November 1923 - German mark was worthless.
|Which three groups of people was hyperinflation 'good' for?
|-Farmers, paid more for food. -People and businesses in debt. -Fixed rents for rooms or shops became VERY cheap.
|What were the bad effects of hyperinflation?
|-The normal people who couldn't afford essentials. -Wages rose, not as quickly as prices. -Businesses went bankrupt. -People with fixed or monthly incomes suffered most. -Savings became worthless. -Blamed Weimar government, making it even more unpopular.
|When was the Munich Putsch?
|October 1923 to 9th November 1923.
|What happened in October 1923 of the Munich Putsch?
|-During crisis of 1923, Hitler plotted with two nationalist politicians: Kahr and Lassow, to take over Munich in a revolution. -October 4th 1923: Kahr and Lassow called off revolution, despite Hitler having troops ready.
|What happened on 8th November 1923 in the Munich Putsch?
|-Hitler and 600 SA burst into a Munich beer hall, where Gustav von Kahr, head of the Bavarian government was holding a meeting. -Hitler announced the revolution had begun. -Threatened everybody to rebel with him.
|What did the SA take on 8th November 1923?
|Army headquarters and offices of local newspaper.
|What happened on 9th November 1923 in the Munich Putsch?
|-Hitler, Ludendorff and about 3000 other supporters marched through Munich, looking for more support. -Kahr had called in police and army reinforcements. -A gun battle resulted in 16 Nazi supports being killed. -FAILED: Hitler and Ludendorff arrested.
|What were the 5 main reason as to why the Nazi Party wanted to take Munich?
|MUBALUREUN: MU - Mussolini BA - Bavarian government (Nazis thought they had support from them). LU - Ludendorff (Nazis thought he could persuade the army to support them). RE - Reparations being payed to France. UN - United support (Hitler was establishe leader, 50,000 supporters and the SA).
|What were the consequences of the Munich Putsch?
|-Nazi Party banned. -Leaders imprisoned. -Hitler's trial = public sympathy. -Nazis rethought tactics. -Now knew that an armed uprising wouldn't work.
|Why was the Munich Putsch a failure?
|-Nazis were not organized. -Police were better prepared. -Too few people in Munich supported the Nazis. -Bavarian government didn't join the Nazis. -Neither the army nor police supported the Nazis. -Putsch appeared a total failure - Hitler in prison, Nazi Party banned.
|Why was the Munich Putsch a success?
|-Failure caused Hitler and other party leaders to re-think tactics. -Gain of popularity, Mein Kampf became a bestseller. -Sympathetic to Nazi ideas. Nazi Party banned for a short period of time and Hitler's sentence shortened.
|What is the name of the person who led the 'Golden Years'?
|What were the five things that Gustav Stresemann did in order to recover the Weimar Republic?
|-Introduction of the Rentenmark. -Dawes plan. -Young plan. -Germany's entry into the League of Nations. -Locarno Treaties. -End of Passive Resistance.
|What were the changes in currency AFTER hyperinflation?
|-November 1923: Rentenmark is introduced to the public and currency stabilized. -1924: Rentenmark converted to Reichsmark (backed with gold) and this gradually restored the value of German money.
|What was the Dawes Plan?
|-Plan introduced in 1924. -Reorganized reparations to USA. -Brough foreign investment to Germany.
|What was the Young plan?
|-Plan introduced in 1929. -Set timescale and reduced reparations. -France agreed to leave Rhineland early.
|What was the significance of Germany entering into the League of Nations (1926)?
|Germany recognized as a greater power again.
|What were the Locarno Treaties?
|-Treaties introduced in 1925. -Improved relations with UK and France. -Guaranteed borders with Belgium, France and Italy.
|What happened and when was the end of passive resistance?
|-Passive Resistance ended in Nov. 1923. -Agreed to pay reparations. -French withdrew from Ruhr in 1925. -Allowed later negotiations over reparations.
|Which groups supported the Nazi Party in 1920's?
|-Young people. -Skilled workers. -Farmers. -Middle and upper classes who feared communism.
|Name 5 ways in which the Nazi Party changed their tactics.
|-Rallies. -Meetings. -Propoganda. -Posters and newspapers. -Mein Kampf.
|Explain rallies in terms of the Nazi Party changing tactics.
|-First rally held in 1926. -Regular huge rallies with military-style marches and speeches by Hitler. -VERY popular with youth.
|Explain meetings in terms of the Nazi Party changing tactics.
|-Nazis ran evening classes to train members in public speaking. -Helped them to spread Nazi ideology.
|Explain propaganda in terms of the Nazi Party changing tactics.
|-Goebbels managed propaganda. -Targetted specific groups with specific messages. -Anti-Jewish propaganda worked best with working class people.
|Explain posters and newspapers in terms of the Nazi Party changing tactics.
|-Posters skillfully got their messages across. -Newspapers explained ideas in more depth.
|Explain Mein Kampf in terms of the Nazi Party changing tactics.
|-Published in 1925. -Promoted the following aims: --Removing Jews from Germany. --Destroying Communism. --Expanding Germany. -The book became a BESTSELLER.
|What were the 4 ways in which Nazi Party Organisation changed?
|-From local to national. -Targetting rural areas. -Organisations. -SA.
|Explain moving from local to national in terms of changing Nazi Party Organisation.
|-Nazi headquarters stayed in Munich. -Brances were set up all over Germany. -Each Gau was led by a Gauletier.
|Explain targeting rural areas in terms of changing Nazi Party Organisation.
|Nazis focused on winning support fom farmeres, who were finding times tough (especially after 1928).
|Explain organisations in terms of changing Nazi Party Organisation.
|-Various different organisations were set up for different groups. Examples include: -Hitler Youth. -Nazi Students' League. -Teachers' League. -Woman's League.
|Explain SA in terms of changing Nazi Party Organisation.
|-Image of SA CHANGED. -Now one of order and discipline. -More young men wanted to join.
|Name 3 reasons for the increase after 1929 for Nazi support.
|-The appeal of Hitler. -The role of propaganda. -The role of the SA.
|Why was the appeal of Hitler so strong?
|-He was chismatic. -He appealed strongly to women and they wanted his babies.
|What was the role of propaganda as a reason for increase after 1929?
|Goebbels was a MASTER of propaganda. He used these methods: -Posters. -Radio. -Rallies. -Newspapers. -Parades and marches.
|What was the role of the SA as a reason for increase after 1929?
|-By 1932, image of SA improved dramatically. -Over 600,000 members. -Attracted young, unemployed people who admired the parades through towns and cities. -Continued to disrupt Communist Party meetings.
|What and when was the Wall Street Crash?
|-Happened in 1929. -US companies lost billions of dollars in value overnight, leaving banks and businesses ruined. -Crash triggered a worldwide recession. -Germany suffered GREATLY.
|What was the economic impact of the Wall Street Crash (just stages, not detail)?
|US Loans → German business + German government → German people.
|What was the first stage of the economic impact of the Wall Street Crash?
|US stopped lending money to Germany and DEMANDED all loans to be repaid.
|What happened in consequence to the US demanding all its loans to be repaid? German businesses
|-Had to pay back lones. -No more investment from US. -Had to pay increases in taxes. -Worldwide, no money to buy goods, so markets dried up.
|What happened in consequence to the US demanding all its loans to be repaid? German government
|-Couldn't borrow money from US. -Refused to print more money. -Increased taxes. -Made cuts in unemployment benefit. -Gov. workers had wages cut and some lost their jobs.
|What was the effect on the German people due to the Wall Street Crash?
|-Businesses reduced staff or closed. -Millions of workers and farm labourers lost their jobs. -Young people were badly affected by job losses. -With no work, and benefits slashed, families suffered terrible poverty.
|What were the six main political impacts of the Wall Street Crash?
|-Weimar government was blamed for German dependence on US loans. -Highlighted lack of strong leadership. -Two main parties in coalition government (Centre Party and SDP) couldn't agree how to solve the crisis. -Hindenburg used Article 48 to pass laws without Reichstag agreement. Germany became a dictatorship. -New economic policies were unpopular. -Extremist parties became more popular.