|According to Marxists, society is divides into what two classes?
|- The ruling class; capitalists; bourgeoisie - The subject class; working class; proletariat
|What do the capitalist class own?
|The means of production
|How do capitalists make their profits?
|By exploiting the labour of the working class
|Who describes the education system as an 'ideological state apparatus'?
|Along with the ideological state apparatus, Althusser argues there is another element used by the state to keep them in power. What is this?
|Repressive state apparatus
|What is meant by the ideological state apparatus?
|Controlling peoples ideas, values and beliefs
|Give some examples of ISA's
|Education system, religion, mass media
|What does the repressive state apparatus do?
|State use of force when necessary to control and repress the working class
|Give some examples of RSA's
|Courts, police, army
|Althusser argues the education system performs two functions as an ISA. What are these two functions?
|Reproduction and legitimation
|What does Althusser mean by reprodution?
|The education system reproduces class inequalities by failing each generation of working class pupils to ensure they end up in working class jobs like their parents
|What does Althusser mean by legitimation?
|Education legitimates class inequalities by producing ideologies that disguise its true cause - i.e inequality is inevitable and failure is the fault of the individual
|Who argues that capitalist society needs a passive docile labour force?
|Bowles and Gintis
|How do they argue this is achieved?
|Reproduction - the successive generations of workers need the ideas of submission and acceptance of low pay firmly planted in their minds
|Bowles and Gintis argues there is a corresposdence principle between what two institutions?
|School and work
|What does this similarity produce?
|New generations of workers ready to accept their lot and serve capitalism
|Give some examples of the correspondence principle
|Hierachy of authority - extrinsic satisfaction (merits and wages) - fragmentation of knowledge and tasks - competition and divisions among workers and pupils
|Bowles and Gintis argue that the correspondence principle operates through what?
|The hidden curriculum
|What is the hidden curriculum?
|Lessons that are learnt in school without directly being taught
|What does this mean pupils passively accept?
|Hierarchy, competition, alienation
|What is 'meritocracy' and which 2 perspectives argue that it is the case in the education system?
|Everyone has an equal chance & individuals' success is based on their own efforts - Functionalists and New Right
|Why do Bowles and Gintis argue this is a myth?
|Success is not based on ability or achievement; is is based on class background
|What does this do to working class pupils?
|Persuades them to accept inequality and their subordinate position as legitimate
|In their studies, who did Bowles and Gintis argue got the best grades?
|The obedient students
|Who does this mean the education system rewards?
|Those who conform to the qualities required by the future workforce
|Who did Willis study?
|12 working class boys 'the lads'
|What view of Bowles and Gintis did Willis reject?
|The correspondence principle
|Why was this?
|The boys resisted the schools attempt to indoctrinate them rather than passively accepting the ruling class ideology
|What type of subculture did the lads studied by Willis form?
|How did they act in school?
|They broke the rules e.g smoking, distrupting lessons, truanting
|What was this anti-school subculture similar to?
|The shop floor subculture of male manual workers
|What did this explain?
|Why the lads saw themselves as superior to females and conformist pupils (earoles)
|For Willis, what was the irony in his study of the lads?
|By resisting the schools ideologies, the lads subculture guarantees they will fail - ensuring they end up in the manual work capitalism wants them to perform
|So, what does their resistance to school end up reproducing?
|Name some policies which Marxists believe have resulted in more direct capitalist control over education
|Marketisation policies, the privatisation of some educational services, business sponsorship of state schools (academies)
|According to these Marxists, what do capitalists also gain while the education system provides a willing workforce?
|What do Postmodernists say the Marxist perspective is?
|Out of date
|Why do postmodernists argue that class divisions are no longer important?
|in the post-Fordist economic system we are much more diverse and fragmented
|What do postmodernists say is really there where Marxists see inequality?
|Diversity and choice
|Feminists argue that schools also reproduce what?
|What does McRobbie point out about Willis' study?
|There we no females present
|However what has Willis' study been the model for research into?
|Gender, ethnicity and sexuality inequalities within the education system
|Give an example of how Marxists argue among themselves
|Bowles and Gintis - deterministic view; pupils passively accept indoctrination Willis - pupils may see through indoctrination and resist the school yet still end up in working class jobs
|Willis has been criticised for ______________ the lads
|How is it argued he does this?
|Presenting them as working-class heroes despite their anti-social behaviour and sexist attitudes
|Also, what is Willis' study of only 12 lads criticised unlikely to be?