Chem 1006 Key Terms


Undergraduate Chem 1006 Flashcards on Chem 1006 Key Terms, created by Andrea Smith on 12/04/2015.
Andrea Smith
Flashcards by Andrea Smith, updated more than 1 year ago
Andrea Smith
Created by Andrea Smith over 8 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Intermolecular Forces Forces between molecules
Intramolecular Forces Forces within molecules
Strength of Attraction Compare intermolecular forces between molecules that dictates phases at particular temperatures
Phase Changes The change of state of a molecule or solution
Boiling Point When the kinetic energy between molecules is high enough to overcome the attractive forces and change from liquid to gas
Vaporization Liquid to gas phase change
Condensation Gas to liquid phase change
Melting Point When kinetic energy between molecules is high enough to overcome the attractive forces and change from solid to liquid phase
Melting Solid to liquid phase change
Freezing Liquid to solid phase change
Sublimation Solid to gas phase change
De-sublimation Gas to solid phase change
Ion-Dipole Attraction Exists between an ion and a permanent dipole
Hydrogen Bond Slightly polar hydrogen is attached to a lone pair
Dipole-Dipole Forces Mutual attraction between two dipoles
Ion-Induced Dipole Ion induces a dipole in another molecule
Dipole-Induced Dipole Dipole induces a dipole in another molecule
Dispersion Forces Shifts in electron cloud density to induce momentary attractions between molecules
Molecular Solids Solids held together by intermolecular forces
Network Solids Solids held together by covalent bonds between atoms
Metallic Solids Solids held together by delocalized electrons shared between valence orbitals
Ionic Solids Solids held together by electrical forces
Solute What gets dissolved in the solution
Solvent The solution that the solute gets dissolved into
Homogenous Mixture Solute is evenly and uniformly distributed throughout the solvent so as they can not be separately identified
Heterogenous Mixture Solute is not evenly dissolved in the solvent so you can identify the two separate species
Colloidal Suspension Molecules of different phase uniformly dispersed throughout the medium
Miscibility If something will dissolve in a solution
Solubility How much a solute will dissolve in a solvent
Saturation Point Reached when the maximum amount of solute has been dissolved in the solvent
Surfactants A substance that tends to reduce the surface tension of a liquid in which it is dispersed
Colligative Properties Properties that change based on the amount of solute present in solution
Osmosis Movement of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane
Kinetics How fast reactions occur under various conditions
Unimolecular Reactions Single molecule reactant changes to form different molecules
Bimolecular Reactions Two molecules collide and react to form one or more different molecules
Termolecular Reactions Three molecules collide and react to form two or more different molecules
Rate (of a Reaction) How fast a reactant is disappearing or how fast a product is appearing
Exothermic Reaction Reaction that releases heat
Endothermic Reaction Reaction that absorbs heat
Catalyst Reactant that changes the mechanism of the overall reaction to lower the required activation energy
Bronsted-Lowry Acid Any species that donates a proton
Bronsted-Lowry Base Any species that accepts a proton
Amphiprotic Species Species that can accept or donate protons
Strong Acid Species fully dissociates to donate all protons
Strong Base Species that fully dissociates to form hydroxide ions
Polyprotic Acids Acidic species that can donate more than one proton
Buffer Solution Solution that contains a weak species and its conjugate to protect the solution from major pH changes
Buffer Capacity Amount of hydroxide and hydronium ions that a solution can tolerate without exceeding a specific pH range
Common Ion Effect Occurs when a solid salt is added to a solution that contains one of the dissociated ions and so the solubility decreases
pH Effect Salt dissociates to form the conjugate base of a weak acid and the base will combine with water to from an acid species
Thermodynamics Study of energy transfers and transformations
System Process being described or studied
Surroundings Everything that is not involved in the system
First Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created nor destroyed only transferred (from one body to another) or transformed (from one form to another)
Molar Heat Capacity Amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 mole by 1 degree
Work Energy used to move an object against an opposing force
State Functions The conditions before and after a transformation takes place
Path Functions How a transformation occurs
Path Independence Any combination of steps that will result in the same overall change
Reaction Energy Net change of all steps to complete a mechanism for an overall reaction
Enthalpy Total heat content or flow contained within a system
Second Law of Thermodynamics In a spontaneous process the total entropy of the system increases
Entropy The amount of disorder of a system
Third Law of Thermodynamics The entropy of a system approaches a constant value as the temperature reaches zero kelvin
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