|Ionic compounds: What are they? What are they held together by?
|Giant structures of ions. Strong forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions, that act in all directions.
|Ionic compounds: Do they have high or low melting and boiling points? Do they conduct electricity?
|High melting and boiling points They conduct electricity, but only when molten or in a solution, because the charge ions are free to move about and carry the current
|Fill in the missing gaps: The alkali metals have ____ electron/s in their outermost shell. They react with ___________ elements to form ______ compounds.
|One (electron) (React with) non-metal (elements to form) ionic (compounds).
|Fill in the missing gaps: The halogens have ______ electron/s in their outermost shell. They react with ______ ______ to form ______ compounds.
|Seven (electrons) (They react with) alkali metals (to form) ionic (compounds).
|What does a mixture consist of?
|Two or more elements or compounds that are NOT CHEMICALLY COMBINED.
|What type of substances are compounds?
|Substances in which the atoms of two or more elements ARE CHEMICALLY COMBINED.
|Fill in the missing gaps: Simple molecular compounds have ____ melting and boiling points, because they have _______ intermolecular forces.
|What does a covalent bond occur between?
|Is a covalent bond strong or weak?
|Fill in the missing gaps: All of the atoms in a giant covalent structures are linked by _______ ___________ _______. This means they have very _____ _________ _______.
|Strong covalent bonds High melting points
|What is Diamond? (Describe the bonds as well)
|A form of carbon that has a giant, rigid covalent structure (lattice). Each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds with other carbon atoms.
|What is Graphite? (Describe the bonds as well)
|A form of carbon that also has a giant covalent structure. Each carbon atom forms three covalent bonds with other carbon atoms in a LAYERED STRUCTURE.
|What type of forces are the layers in graphite held together by?
|WEAK intermolecular forces
|How is it possible for graphite to conduct electricity?
|One electron from each carbon atom is delocalised. These delocalised electrons allow graphite to conduct heat and electricity.
|Fill in the missing gaps: Silicon dioxide has a ________ structure similar to ________. Each oxygen atom is joined to _____ silicon atoms, and each silicon atom is joined to _____ oxygen atoms.
|Lattice (structure) Diamond Two (silicon atoms) four (oxygen atoms)
|What are fullerenes?
|The fullerenes are a large class of allotropes of carbon and are made of balls, ‘cages’ or tubes of carbon atoms.
|What happens when electrons in the highest energy level in a metal become delocalised?
|A regular arrangement (lattice) of positive ions that are held together by electrons using electrostatic attraction is produced.
|What is an alloy?
|A mixture that contains a metal and at least one other element.
|What is a Smart Alloy?
|An alloy that "remembers" its original shape.
|What do thermo-softening polymers consist of?
|Individual polymer chains that are tangled together (Like spaghetti)
|What do thermo-setting polymers consist of? Do they melt when heated?
|Polymer chains that are joined together by cross-links between them. They don't melt when they're heated.
|What is nanoscience? What is one nanometre, in metres?
|The study of very small structures. One nanometre = 0.000 000 001m (One billionth of a metre)
|Give some potential uses of nanoparticles...
|Computers, catalysts, coatings, highly selective sensors, stronger and lighter construction materials and cosmetics.
|What is the mass number of an element? What is the atomic number of an element?
|Mass number = total number of protons and neutrons in the atom Atomic number = Number of protons in the atom
|What are isotopes?
|Atoms of the same element, that have different numbers of neutrons. They have the SAME atomic number, but a DIFFERENT mass number.
|What is the relative atomic mass?
|The atomic mass of an element. The mass of a particular atom, compared with a twelfth of the mass of a carbon atom (the 12C isotope). The Ar is an AVERAGE value for all of the isotopes of the element.
|What is the relative formula mass of a compound?
|The relative atomic masses of all its elements added together.
|How can you work out the percentage mass of an element in a compound?
|What is the empirical formula of a compound?
|The simplest whole number ratio of each kind of atom in the compound.
|What is a Mole? What is it measured in?
|A measure of the number of particles contained in a substance. One mole of a substance is its relative formula mass or Ar, in grams.
|How can you work out the number of moles of substance?
|How does a GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) work? (DESCRIBE!!!)
|By allowing different substances, carried by a gas, to travel through a column packed with solid material at different speeds so that they separate. Each substance will produce a separate peak on an output known as a gas chromatograph. The number of peaks on this output shows the number of compounds present in the original sample. The position of the peaks on the output graph indicates the retention time, i.e. the time taken to pass through the gas chromatograph. If the output of the gas chromatography column is linked to a mass spectrometer then this can also be used to identify the substances leaving the column.
|What can the mass spectrometer give? How is this given?
|The relative molecular mass (Mr) of each substance separated in the column. The molecular mass is given my the molecular ion peak on the spectrum.
|How can the percentage yield be calculated?
|How are reversible reactions represented?
|(This example is using the Haber process, which is part of Chemistry C3)
|Give some advantages of using instrumental methods to detect and identify elements...
|- Instrumental methods are accurate - Sensitive and rapid - Useful when dealing with small quantities
|Give some reasons why it may not always be possible to calculate the amount of a product formed in a reaction...
|- The reaction may be reversible. - Some of the product may be lost when it's separated from the reaction mixture. - Some of the reactants may react in ways different to the expected reaction.
|What is the activation energy?
|The minimum amount of energy required to cause a reaction.
|RATES OF REACTION: How does temperature affect the rate of reaction?
|WARMER = FASTER COLDER = SLOWER In a cold reaction mixture, the particles move quite slowly, they collide less often, with less energy, so fewer collisions take place, and vice versa.
|RATES OF REACTION: How does concentration affect the rate of reaction?
|LOW CONCENTRATION = SLOWER HIGH CONCENTRATION = FASTER In a low concentration, the particles spread out. They collide less often, so there are fewer successful collisions, and vice versa.
|RATES OF REACTION: What is the concentration of a solution measured in?
|Moles per cubic decimetre (Mol/dm3)
|RATES OF REACTION: How does pressure affect the rate of reaction?
|An increase in pressure will increase the rate of reaction. This works in a similar way to concentration.
|RATES OF REACTION: How does surface area affect the rate of reaction?
|LARGER SURFACE AREA = FASTER SMALLER SURFACE AREA = SLOWER Large pieces of a solid material have a small surface area in relation to their volume. Fewer particles are exposed and available for collisions.
|RATES OF REACTION: How does the use of a catalyst affect the rate of reaction?
|It reduces the amount of energy needed for a successful collision. Speeds up the reaction. A catalyst works by providing a surface for the molecules to attach to, which increases their chances of bumping into each other.
|RATES OF REACTION: How do you calculate the rate of reaction?
|Exothermic reactions are accompanied by a temperature...
|Endothermic reactions are accompanied by a temperature...
|In a reversible reaction, if the forward reaction is endothermic, what can you conclude about the backward reaction?
|It is exothermic!
|When is an aqueous solution produced?
|When a substance is dissolved in water.
|What is a salt? (Chemistry reaction terms)
|Any metal compound formed from the reaction between a metal and an acid.
|What is formed when metals react with dilute acid?
|A metal salt and hydrogen.
|What are bases? What are soluble bases called?
|The oxides and hydroxides of metals. Soluble bases are called alkalis.
|Are the oxides and hydroxides of transition metals soluble or insoluble?
|How are the salts of transition metals produced?
|1. The metal oxide or hydroxide is added to an acid until no more will react. 2. The excess metal oxide or hydroxide is then filtered, leaving a solution of the salt. 3.The salt solution is then evaporated.
|How can this reaction be written generally?
|acid + base --> neutral salt solution + water
|What is produced when an acid is reacted with an alkaline hydroxide solution?
|A neutral salt solution and water.
|What is a precipitate?
|A precipitate is a product in solid state, that forms in a chemical reaction in a solution. It is called a precipitate because in most cases it accumulates at the bottom of the containter where the reaction is taking place.
|What ions do acids contain?
|Hydrogen ions, H+
|What ions do alkalis contain?
|Hydroxide ions, OH-
|What type of gas in ammonia?
|An alkaline gas
|Ammonia neutralises Nitric acid to produce...
|What are indicators?
|Dyes that change colour depending on whether they are in acidic or alkaline solutions.
|What is the pH scale?
|A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution, across a 14-point scale.
|What are ammonium salts used as?
|What is electrolysis?
|The breaking down of a compound containing ions into its elements using an electrical current.
|What is the substance being broken down known as?
|In electrolysis, where do the positive and negative ions move to?
|The positive ions move to the negative electrode. The negative ions move to the positive electrode.
|What are the positive and negative electrodes also known as?
|Positive = Anode Negative = Cathode
|What is a redox reaction?
|A chemical reaction where both reduction and oxidation occur.
|What is reduction?
|When positively charged ions gain electrons at the negative electrode.
|What is oxidation?
|When negatively charged ions lose electrons at the positive electrode.
|How can you remember what oxidation and reduction does?
|The word oilrig:
|What can electroplating be used to do?
|Electroplate objects with metals such as silver.
|How is aluminium obtained?
|The electrolysis of aluminium oxide that has been mixed with cryolite.
|What does the cryolite do?
|Lowers the melting point of the aluminium oxide, meaning cheaper energy costs.
|What does the electrolysis of sodium chloride produce? (And where?)
|- Chlorine gas (at the positive electrode). - Hydrogen gas (at the negative electrode). - Sodium hydroxide solution (passed out of the cell).
|How can reactions that occur at the electrodes be represented?
|By using half-equations
|Electrolysis of Ionic Solutions: If the negative ion is a halogen, i.e. chloride, bromide, iodide, what is produced at the positive electrode?
|Electrolysis of Ionic Solutions: If the negative ion is not a halogen, i.e. sulphate, nitrate, carbonate, what is produced at the positive electrode?
|Electrolysis of Ionic Solutions: If the positive ion is more reactive that hydrogen, what is produced at the negative electrode?
|Electrolysis of Ionic Solutions: If the positive ion is less reactive that hydrogen, what is produced at the negative electrode?
|Give some examples of exothermic reactions...
|- Neutralising acids with alkalis - Oxidation - Combustion - Handwarmers
|Give some examples of Endothermic reactions...
|- Thermal Decomposition - Dissolving Aluminium
|What happens when substances dissolve in water... (To do with acidity and alkalinity)
|Substances dissolve into their individual ions: Hydroxide ions, make solutions alkaline Hydrogen ions, make solutions acidic
|How can precipitation be used to soften water?
|The calcium (or magnesium) ions are precipitated out as insoluble calcium (or magnesium) carbonate.
|What damage can nitrates do if they find their way into streams, rivers, or groundwater?
|- Upset the natural balance of water. - Contaminate our drinking water.