|An act against the law
|The act of judging people and their actions
|Due allocation of reward and punishment/the maintenance of what is right
|Rules made by Parliament that are enforceable by the courts
|The death penalty for a crime or offence
|The idea that punishments should be of such a nature that they will put people off (deter) committing crimes
|Restore to normal life
|The idea that punishments should try to change criminals so they will not commit crimes again
|The idea that punishments should make criminals pay for what they have done wrong
|An act against the will of God
|A recurring compulsion to engage in an activity regardless of its bad effects
|Being responsible for one's actions
|Why do we need laws?
|• All groups need rules that its members must follow • Laws in business make sure we are paid & treated fairly • Protect the weak from the strong • Keeps things organised in advanced societies such as the UK
|Why did St Aquinas say that an unjust law is not a proper law?
|• If a law is unjust, people will feel that it is right to break the law • If some are unjust, people may think all laws are unjust • If laws don’t give justice, people will take the law into their own hands
|What are the 4 theories of punishment?
|• Retribution - punished in proportion to the crime e.g. kill those that kill - believe criminals should suffer for what they have done wrong • Deterrence - if you cut someone’s hand off for stealing, they will not steal again • Reform - includes educating criminals so they gain qualifications & don’t have to turn to crime • Protection - keep criminals in prison for so long that when they are released, they are no longer a danger
|Why is justice important for Christians?
|• Bible says God is a God of justice - rewards the good & punishes the bad • Jesus said the rich should share with the poor • New Testament has lots of statements about how Christians should treat people fairly • Christian churches began the Jubilee 2000 campaign to try & end 3rd world debt - sharing Earth’s resources more fairly • Chapel dedicated to justice at Exeter Cathedral
|Why is justice important in Judaism?
|• It is important for courts to be fair & treat people equally as this follows the law of the Torah • Torah says God is a God of justice • Tenakh says people should be treated fairly & equally
|What are some non-religious arguments in favour of capital punishment?
|• Will deter crimes like murder & terrorism • Murderers are a threat to society - threat should be permanently removed • The only retribution/compensation for murder is death
|What are some non-religious arguments against capital punishment?
|• Could be wrongly convicted • Countries without death penalty have lower murder rates - doesn’t work • Executed terrorists become martyrs & inspire others to become terrorists
|Why are some Christians against capital punishment?
|• Jesus came to reform sinners - can’t reform the dead • Jesus banned the Old Testament law of ‘an eye for an eye’ (retribution) • Human life is sacred & only God can take it away • Jesus said ‘turn the other cheek’
|Why do some Christians see capital punishment as a good way to keep order in society?
|• Bible mentions it as a punishment for certain crimes & the Bible comes from God • Catholic & C of E churches have not condemned the use of capital punishment • Church used it for crimes like heresy • Aquinas said peace in society was more important than reforming sinners
|What are the attitudes to capital punishment in Judaism?
|Most believe it is acceptable as a last resort with severe restrictions because… • Torah says CP should be used for certain offences • Talmud says it is allowed if murderer has been warned of the consequences of their actions/there are 2 witnesses • It protects society Some do not believe it is acceptable because the Torah & the Tenakh need updating - a Bet Din that executes a person once in 70 years is a destructive Bet Din
|What are the laws on class A, B & C drugs?
|• Class A drugs e.g. cocaine, ecstasy, heroin - 7 years in prison for possession - Life in prison for supplying • Class B drugs e.g. amphetamines - 5 years in prison for supplying - 14 years in prison for supplying • Class C drugs e.g. cannabis, anabolic steroids - 2 years in prison for possession - 5 years in prison for supplying
|What are the laws on tobacco & alcohol?
|• Tobacco - cannot be sold to under 18s, adverts for tobacco products are banned • Alcohol - supervised under 16s can go anywhere in a pub, over 16s can have an alcoholic drink with a meal if accompanied by an adult
|Why are Christians against illegal drugs?
|• St Paul taught a Christian’s body is a temple & should not be abused • Drugs have mental effects which make it hard to worship God correctly
|Why do some Christians believe in moderation, regarding tobacco & alcohol?
|• Jesus’ first miracle was turning water into wine • St Paul said Christians could drink in moderation • Jesus drank wine at the Last Supper
|Why do some Christians believe in abstinence, regarding tobacco & alcohol?
|• Bible warns against drunkenness e.g. Noah’s drunkenness brought shame on the family • Bible notes alcohol ‘impairs judgement, inflames passions & invites violence’
|Why are Jews against illegal drugs?
|• Drugs have mental effects which make it hard to worship God correctly • Parents are usually distressed by child’s drug usage so is not honouring your parents • Torah says ‘you shall be holy’
|Why do Jewish people believe in moderation, regarding tobacco & alcohol?
|• Wine is used in ritual processes such as Kiddush •Drunkenness is condemned in the Tenakh • Tenakh praises wine as a substance that ‘gladdens the heart’
|What are the health & social problems associated with tobacco?
|• Health - increases risk of getting over 50 medical conditions, can cause impotence in men • Social - watching loved ones die, makes people smell
|What are the health & social problems associated with drugs?
|• Health - death through overdose, major cause of mental illness • Social - dealers are criminals, major cause of gang crime
|What are the health & social problems associated with alcohol?
|• Health - causes liver & stomach problems, mental health problems • Social - causes 41% of all deaths through falls, 65% of murderers had been drinking