|What is a person if their diet is unbalanced?
|What is the Metabolic Rate?
|The rate at which all chemical reactions take place within the body
|Where is Cholesterol made?
|In the Liver
|What two factors affect the amount of cholesterol in your blood?
|Your Diet Inherited factors
|What are Microorganisms that cause infectious diseases called?
|How do White Blood Cells defend against disease?
|- Ingest Pathogens - Produce antitoxins to neutralise toxins from pathogens - produce antibodies to destroy particular pathogens
|How does a vaccination defend you from a disease?
|1. Small amounts of an inactive or dead pathogen are injected into the body 2.Your white blood cells produce antibodies to destroy the pathogen 3. You then have an acquired immunity
|Who was Semmelweiss?
|Doctor, from 1840s, who got doctors to wash their hands
|How do antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens occur?
|1. A pathogen mutates, producing a new strain 2. The new strain may be resistant to antibiotics 3. The new resistant strain spreads rapidly because we are not immune to it
|What are the steps in the nervous system?
|Receptor --> Sensory Neurone --> Relay Neurone --> Brain and/or Spinal cord --> Motor Neurone --> Effector
|What is the gap between neurones called?
|What part of the body acts as the co-ordinator in a reflex action?
|The Spinal Cord
|To keep your internal environment relatively constant, what must your body control?
|- Temperature (37°C for enzymes) - Water Content - Ion Content - Blood sugar
|What are Hormones produced by?
|In the menstrual cycle, what hormones are involved?
|Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary gland Oestrogen from the ovaries Luteinising hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland
|What happens during IVF?
|1. Mother is given FSH and LH so several eggs mature. 2. Eggs collected from Mother. 3. Eggs fertilised in a laboratory using the father's sperm. 4. Fertilised eggs develop into embryos. 5. Embryos are inserted into the mother's uterus.
|What is a plants response to a stimulus?
|What hormone controls the way in which a plant responds to light and gravity?
|What is the way in which a plant grows in response to: - Light - Gravity called?
|What are drugs?
|Chemical substances which alter the way the body works
|What are Statins?
|Drugs used to lower the amount of cholesterol found in the blood
|What is the name of a fake drug given to people to 'trick' them into feeling better?
|What was the Thalidomide drug?
|A drug that was supposed to be a sleeping pill, then found to relieve morning sickness, however, because the dug hadn't been tested on humans, they didn't find out about any of the side effects, which lead to babies being born with limb abnormalities. It is now used to treat leprosy.
|What does tobacco smoke contain?
|Carbon Monoxide Nicotine Carcinogens
|What are extremophiles?
|Organisms that live in environments that are very extreme
|TRUE OR FALSE: The biomass at each stage in a food chain is more than it was at the previous stage
|FALSE Energy is lost between each stage, due of respiration and excretion
|What sort of conditions do microorganisms like?
|Warm, Moist and AEROBIC
|The constant cycling of carbon is called _____ _________ _______.
|The Carbon Cycle
|Differences between the characteristics of individuals of the same species are called ____________.
|What are the two types of sexual reproduction?
|Sexual reproduction Asexual reproduction
|What are the stages in Tissue Cloning?
|1. Small groups of cells are scraped from part of a plant 2. The cells are grown on agar containing nutrients and hormones THE OFFSPRING ARE GENETICALLY IDENTICAL TO THE PARENT PLANT
|What are the stages in Embryo Transplants?
|1. Cells from a developing animal embryo are split before they become specialised 2. The resulting identical embryos are transplanted into host mothers OFFSPRING ARE GENETICALLY IDENTICAL TO EACH OTHER, BUT NOT THE PARENTS
|What are the stages in Adult Cell Cloning?
|1. The nucleus is removed from an unfertilised egg cell. 2. The nucleus from an adult body cell;, e.g. skin cell, is then inserted into the 'empty' egg cell. 3. An electric shock causes the egg cell to begin dividing to form an embryo. 4. The embryo is inserted into a host mother OFFSPRING GENETICALLY IDENTICAL TO THE DONOR ANIMAL (THAT THE NUCLEUS CAME FROM)
|What are the steps in genetic modification?
|1. Individual genes are 'cut out' of the chromosomes of an organism using special enzymes. 2. The genes are then transferred to the cells of other organisms
|What concerns may people have about GM crops?
|- Its effect on wild flowers and insects - The uncertainty about the effects of GM crops on human helth
|Who developed the theory of evolution by natural selection?
|Why wasn't the theory of evolution by natural selected not accepted straight away?
|- Lack of evidence. - Went against the belief that God created the earth. Mechanism of inheritance and variation wasn't discovered until 50 years later.
|Who described a theory of evolution where changes during the lifetime of an organism were passed on to the next generation?
|What are the steps in evolution?
|1. individual organism within a species show variation because of differences in their genes. 2. Individuals better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive, SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST. 3. Survivors pass on their genes, resulting in an 'improved' organism evolving through natural selection. Gene mutations may bring about a more rapid change in a species.
|What are evolutionary trees?
|Models that allow us to map the relationships between organisms