HRCI Glossary of Terms O-Z


Professional PHR SPHR Flashcards on HRCI Glossary of Terms O-Z, created by Sandra Reed on 31/01/2015.
Sandra Reed
Flashcards by Sandra Reed, updated more than 1 year ago
Sandra Reed
Created by Sandra Reed about 8 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Transferring service or manufacturing operations to a foreign country where there is a supply of skilled and less costly labor. Offshoring
The process of helping new employees learn the organization’s policies, procedures, and culture in addition to their job responsibilities. On-boarding
Person-to-person communication, such as a conversation between two employees. One-on-one
The skills and knowledge a person learns from day-to-day work experience. On-the-job experience
Acquiring knowledge, practical skills, and competencies while engaged in daily work. On-the-job training
Made available for others to use or modify. Open sourcing
A graphic representation of how authority and responsibility is distrib- uted within a company; includes all work processes of the company. Organization chart
Planned process that uses the principles of behavioral science to im- prove the way an organization functions. Organizational development
The way that employees and processes are grouped into departments or functions in an organization, along with a description of reporting relationships. Organizational structure
Services that help an employee find a new job (for example, writing resumes, networking skills, and counseling) Outplacement
Transferring certain business functions outside of the organization so that the organization can focus on core activities (examples of outsourced functions include data processing, telemarketing, and manufacturing) Outsourcing
Money that a person or organization has borrowed but not yet paid back. Outstanding loan
Direct costs associated with operating a business, such as rent, salaries, benefits, equipment, technology, and so on. Overhead
Extra time worked beyond the normal hours of employment or the payment for extra time worked. Overtime
Owning part of a company or business. Ownership interest
People who live and work abroad but are citizens of the country where an organization’s headquarters is located. Parent-county nationals
A vertical bar graph in which values are plotted in decreasing order of frequency, from left to right; often used in quality control. pareto chart
A view of the world that does not consider other ways of living and working. parochialism
The number of correct answers required to pass a test. passing score
A payment strategy where management links an employee’s pay to desired results, behaviors, or goals. pay for performance
People who are similar to one another in age, background, profession, or status. peers
The amount of money a person receives for working for one day, or the amount an organization allows an employee to spend on expenses each day (for example, meals and hotels on a business trip) per diem
A method of measuring how effective employees are. performance appraisals
The process of setting goals, measuring progress, and rewarding or correcting performance for employees. performance management
The process of helping people perform to the best of their abilities, which begins by defining a job, and ends when an employee leaves the organization. Performance management system
A documented discussion about an employee’s development and per- formance that involves managers, HR, and the employee. Performance review
The behaviors and results that management expects employees to achieve on the job. performance standards
Pay linked to how well the employee meets expectations; better per- formance results in more pay. performance-based pay
An employee’s regular or usual job or position in a company. permanent assignment
Special non-monetary privileges (such as a car or club membership) that come with senior job positions; also called executive perks or fringe benefits. perquisites (perks)
Political, Economical, Socio-political and Technological (PEST) data that is gathered and reviewed by organizations for planning purposes. PEST analysis
A technique in which a company gives its employees the benefits that come with owning stock, including “dividends”, but does not actually give them stock in the company. phantom stock arrangement
A wage system in which the employee is paid for each unit of produc- tion at a fixed rate. piece rate
Finding suitable jobs for applicants. placement
Missing work after asking permission in advance, such as for vacation or a medical appointment. planned absence
Inability of employees to advance further in the company due to me- diocre performance or lack of opportunities. plateaued careers
A method to help guide and make decisions. policy
Unrest, agitation, or turmoil about a government’s actions or beliefs. political unrest
Recruiting host country nationals to manage subsidiaries in their own country, and recruiting parent country nationals to fill management positions at headquarters. polycentric staffing orientation
A term Geert Hofstede uses in his cultural theory to describe hierar- chical relationships between people in a culture. For example, high power distance means there are strong hierarchical relationships. Low power distance means greater equality and accessibility among the population. power distance
The extent to which a score on a scale or test predicts future behavior. predictive validity
Payments employees receive for meeting goals by a certain time; also, payments for insurance. premiums
The hourly wage, usual benefits, and overtime that most workers receive in a certain location. prevailing wage
Incorrect conclusions where the first impression of someone or some- thing continues despite contradictory evidence. primacy errors
A diagram used to assess business processes; sometimes called “process mapping.” process-flow analysis
A person who monitors another person or activity (for example, some- one who supervises an exam) proctor
A method of organizing a company in which the departments are grouped by product. product structure
Formal or informal evaluation of an employee’s progress toward goals and recommendations for improvements and development. progress review
A series of corrective actions aimed at an employee to resolve a prob- lem or improve performance. progressive discipline
A methodical approach to planning and guiding project processes from start to finish. project management
Advancement of an employee’s rank, usually with greater responsibility and more money. promotion
Rights of property ownership relating to key information, materials or methods developed by an organization. proprietary
An unwritten agreement of the mutual beliefs, perceptions, and informal obligations between an employer and an employee, which influence how they interact. psychological contract
Buy or acquire something through payment or barter. purchase
Giving a number to a measurement of something. Quantification
An increase in salary that an employee receives, often for good perfor- mance. Raise
The amount covered, or the amount of difference (for example, a “salary range” is the difference between the lowest and highest amount paid for a particular job) range
An employee’s pay compared to the total pay range for the same job function. range penetration
Rating employees from best to worst against each other according to a standard measurement system. ranked performance
A demand for money or other goods in exchange for releasing a person or property. ransom
Changing the process of applying for a job or the work environment for a qualified person with a disability. reasonable accommodation
Surveys that gather information on what other companies pay em- ployees and what kind of benefits they provide. remuneration surveys
To return home from an international work assignment. repatriate
The return of an employee to the home country after living in another country (for example, an expatriate going home from an international assignment) repatriation
Using past performance to identify employees who can fill future vacancies (unlike succession planning, which focuses on future potential) replacement planning
A warning given to an employee who violates an organization’s rules and may result in dismissal. reprimand
A task that is part of an employee’s job description. responsibility
sSock with rules about when it can be sold (restricted stock is usually issued as part of a salary package, and has a time limit on when it can be fully transferred) restricted stock
Methods of motivating employees to stay with the organization and making sure employees are satisfied and rewarded. retention
Performance measure used to evaluate the financial outcome of an investment. return on investment (ROI)
The often unanticipated disorientation resulting from “re-entry” back into one’s home culture after an expatriate assignment. reverse culture shock
The process of analyzing potential threats and deciding how to prevent them. risk management
How a person acts as appropriate to a particular job function or position. role behavior
To perform an action or attitude in a simulation in order to understand a different viewpoint. role play
All citizens are subject to the laws of their country, no individual is above the law, and everyone must obey it. rule of law
Applying Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and Time-based goals to help a company achieve business success. S.M.A.R.T. goal setting
A benefit provided by some organizations that allows eligible employ- ees paid time off during a specific time period for study, rest, or travel. sabbatical leave
The amount of money between the highest and lowest amount paid for a particular job. salary mid-point
The lowest and highest wages paid to employees who work in the same or similar jobs. Salary range
A broad range of legal regulations that strengthen corporate account- ing controls in the U.S. Sarbanes-Oxley Act
A conversion of a raw score to a common scale that can be used for comparison. scaled score
“A graph with a vertical and horizontal axis with dots at each data point. Also called a “scatter plot”” or “dot chart.”” scatter diagram
The total number of right and wrong questions on an exam (for example, pre-test questions do not count) scored questions
An instrument used in employee selection to help assess job suitability. Examples include in-basket exercises, psychometric tests, and cultural adaptability inventories. screening tool
The total number of right and wrong questions on an exam (for exam- ple, pre-test questions do not count) Scored questions
Method for choosing the best candidate for a job. selection
Evaluation of one’s own performance, abilities, and developmental needs. self-assessment
The ratio of the number of employees who leave their jobs to the total number of employees in the organization. separation rate
An additional payment (other than salary) given to an employee when employment termination occurs. severance
Unwelcome verbal, visual, or physical conduct of a sexual nature that is offensive or inappropriate. sexual harassment
An operational approach where each country or unit uses administra- tive services from a central source rather than repeating these services in different locations (examples of services include finance, purchas- ing, inventory, payroll, hiring, and information technology). shared services
The code of law from the Koran that regulates both civil and criminal justice as well as individual behaviors and morals. Sharia
Occurring over a brief time (for example, a short-term loan or a short- term assignment) short-term
A work assignment outside the home country that is usually less than 6 months long. short-term assignment
A method of assessing a job candidate’s skills by asking them how they would respond to specific work-related issues and problems. situational interview
A strategy to improve current business processes by continuously reviewing and revising them. six sigma
Technology that lets people communicate over the Internet to share information and resources (for examples, Twitter, Facebook, Linke- dIn, and podcasts) social media
A group of people who interact because they have a common interest. The group communicates either in-person or using technology (for example, Facebook or Twitter) social network
An organization’s voluntary obligation toward the good of the environ- ment in which it operates. social responsibility
Identifying candidates who are qualified to do a job by using pro-ac- tive recruiting techniques. sourcing
The number of employees who report to one manager in an organization. The more people that a manager supervises, the wider the span of control. span of control
A method of paying expatriates that gives part of their salary in the currency of the home country and part of their salary in the currency of the host country. split payroll
Work groups that support the major business of an organization with activities such as accounting, customer service, maintenance, and personnel. staff units
The act of selecting, hiring, and training people for specific jobs, as well as reducing the workforce when needed. staffing
A person, group, or organization that has a direct or indirect interest in the organization (for example, owners, investors, employees, sup- pliers, unions, or the community) stakeholder
A company or business that recently began operating and is in an early phase of development. start-up
Employee benefits mandated by federal or local laws, such as social insurance and unemployment insurance. statutory benefit
A retention strategy that helps organizations understand why their employees remain with the organization and how they can motivate them to continue their employment. stay interview
An oversimplified opinion, image, or attitude that people from a particular group are all the same. stereotype
A benefit which gives employees the right to buy or sell stock in their company at a certain price for a specific period of time. stock option
An arrangement between two organizations to pursue common goals and share resources. Unlike a joint venture, the organizations do not form a new legal entity. strategic alliance
A mutually beneficial relationship based upon the common goals of people or organizations. strategic partnership
The process of defining a company’s direction for the future in 4 stages: analysis, development, implementation, and evaluation. strategic planning
A plan of action that starts with examining the current state of an organization and then deciding how to achieve the best state for the organization’s future. strategy
Setting personal or business targets that require extra effort to achieve. stretch objectives
A company whose voting stock is more than 50% owned by another company. The company with the majority interest is called the “parent company” subsidiary
Use of habit forming drugs or substances which impair behavior. substance abuse
Identifying and developing high-potential employees for the organiza- tion’s future success. succession planning
Someone who oversees employees in a department or business unit to assign tasks and make sure work is completed. supervisor
Process of planning, implementing, and controlling operations, which begins with acquiring raw materials and continues to customer delivery and support. supply chain management (SCM)
The capacity to stay, hold or maintain something, such as a concept, economy, geography, environment, and so on. sustainability
A strategic planning technique used to assess the internal and external environment in which a company operates, its strengths and weak- nesses (internal), and opportunities and threats (external). SWOT analysis
Type of e-learning in which participants interact without a time delay, which requires them to attend at specific times. synchronous learning
The process of recruiting, integrating, and developing new workers, developing and keeping current workers, and attracting skilled workers. Talent management
A group of available skilled workers, or database of resumes, that a company can use to recruit in a particular location. talent pool
An assessment of job-related behavior from the candidate’s previous employment to predict future performance. targeted selection
A document which lists the tax money owed to a government or legal body. tax bill
A policy that makes sure that expatriates’ combined home and host taxes are no more than they would have paid if they remained in their home country. The expatriate’s company pays for any additional taxes. tax equalization
A flexible work arrangement which allows part or full time employees to work at home via a computer. telecommuting
Holding a permanent job or position without the need for periodic contract renewals. tenure
A rule that employees must follow the tax laws of the country where they are working. territorial rule
An organization that provides locations for people to take exams on certain dates. testing vendor
An expatriate who works for a foreign company that is located in the host country (for example, a French person working in China for a German company) third country national (TCN)
A person or group in addition to those who are directly involved, such as a company that supplies outsourced services to an organization. third party
The average number of days that a certain job position remains open. time-to-fill
An employee’s complete pay package, including cash, benefits, and services. total compensation
A method for improving the organization by continuously changing its practices, structures, and systems. Total Quality Management (TQM)
Financial and non-financial benefits that the employee sees as valuable. total rewards
An agreement between countries that says an expatriate only needs to pay social taxes to the country in which he or she is working. totalization agreement
A person who is learning and practicing the necessary skills for a particular job. trainee
A way of communicating skills and knowledge (for examples, class- room training, distance learning, online training, and on-the-job- training) training method
The continuous exchange of information, knowledge, and skills from one context to another. transfer of learning
Changing a message from one language to another while keeping the meaning. translation
An organization whose operations, production, or service processes take place in more than one country, and are interconnected. transnational corporation (TNC)
Gathering information from the past to identify patterns which will help predict future outcomes. trend analysis
A benefit whereby the employer provides full or partial payment for educational courses completed by employees. tuition reimbursement
Business that includes everything needed to start operating in a certain location. turnkey operation
One of Geert Hofstede’s cultural dimensions which describes the degree to which cultures accept ambiguity and risk. For example, in cultures with high uncertainty avoidance, people prefer clear, formal rules. In cultures with low uncertainty avoidance, people are comfortable with flexible rules. uncertainty avoidance
Paid in advance, or invested as beginning capital. up-front
Software that allows a human and a computer to share information. user interface
To formalize an agreement; in testing, to confirm the accuracy. validate
The extent to which something is accurate (for example, the extent to which an exam actually measures what it claims to measure) validity
Model of how businesses receive raw materials, add value to the raw materials, and sell finished products to customers. value chain
The unique benefits, costs, and value that a business delivers to its customers. value proposition
The lasting beliefs of members of a culture about what is good or desirable and what is not. values
Profit-sharing, incentives, bonuses or commissions that align compensation with performance. variable pay plan
A person or company that sells services and/or products, such as a recruiting firm, financial consultant, or relocation company. vendor/supplier
A legal doctrine that makes a person liable for the negligence or crimes of another person. vicarious liability
A group of people who work in different times, locations, or organiza- tions, who communicate using technology. virtual team
A written statement which clarifies what the organization wants to be in the future. vision statement
Extra benefits or discounted services offered to employees with little extra cost to the employer. Examples include additional life insur- ance, gym memberships, and concierge services. voluntary benefits
The lowest and highest wages paid to employees who work in the same or similar jobs. Wage band
An interactive seminar on the Internet. (usually a live presentation) webinar
Term used in statistics to show the frequency of different choices. weighting pattern
A positive lifestyle which includes good health, enjoyable recreation and leisure time, and social belonging. well being
Services to improve and maintain the health of employees. wellness program
A business function that produces one product or focuses on a single area. work unit
Services to support the well-being of employees and to help them balance their jobs, families, and personal lives. work/life programs
The people working for a single company, industry, or a geographic region. workforce
Metrics used to determine the effectiveness of HR functions, such as turnover rates, organizational culture, and succession planning. workforce analytics
Identifying and analyzing what an organization needs to achieve its goals, in terms of the size, type, and quality of its employees. workforce planning
The regular movement of employees from one function, time, or place to another, as needed. workforce rotation
The ability to effectively manage time at work with the time spent on leisure or with family members. work-life balance
Services to support the well-being of employees and to help them balance their jobs, families, and personal lives. work-life balance programs
A place, such as an office or factory, where people work. workplace
Organizations that function like trade unions and represent the rights of workers. Works councils are most common in Europe and the UK. works councils
A budgeting process that requires that every budget item is approved instead of only budget changes being approved. No reference is made to previous budget expenditures. zero-based budgeting
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