Science Unit 1 (UK GCSE EDEXCEL)


Unfinished. Taken from Edexcel Science Student Book published by Pearson. All information taken from the glossary. This is only unit 1 of Biology, Chemistry and Physics. I will upload the rest of the glossary for all of the units
Flashcards by themarkkiley, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by themarkkiley over 9 years ago

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Question Answer
Define: Acid rain Rain that is more acidic than normal, due to Sulphur and nitrogen oxides dissolved in it.
Define: Acquired Characteristic A characteristic that is changed by the environment rather than inherited from your parents.
Define: Adaptation Organisms have certain characteristics that allow them to survive in particular places. These characteristics are called adaptations.
Define: Addicted When the body is dependent on a drug and doesn't work properly without it.
Define: Algae (Singluar - Alga) A group of organisms that can make food using photosynthesis but do not have roots or leaves, like plants. These organisms include seaweeds and some single-celled organisms
Define: Alkali A soluble base
Define: Alkane A hydrocarbon with only single bonds between two carbon atoms.
Define: Alkene A hydrocarbon with at least one double bond between carbon atoms.
Define: Allele Every gene comes in different types called Alleles. So a gene for eye colour may come in a 'blue type' allele and a 'brown type' allele.
Define: Alloy Mixture of metals
Define: Alloy steel An alloy of iron with other metals (steel itself is not an alloy)
Alpha Particles A type of ionising radiation emitted by a radioactive material.
Define: Alternating Current Current whose direction changes many time each second.
Define: Amphibians Vertebrates that have a moist, permeable skin and lay jelly-coated eggs in water.
Define: Amplitude The maximum distance of particles in a wave from their normal positions.
Define: Antacid A compound that is used to neutralise acid in the stomach
Define: Antibacterial Antibiotic that kills or slows the growth of bacteria.
Define: Antibiotic Substance that can kill or slow the growth of microorgansims
Define: Antifungal Antibiotic that kills or slows the growth of fungi.
Define: Antiseptic Substance that is used to stop the spread of Pathogens.
Define: Aqueous Solution Mixture formed when a substance dissolves in water.
Define: Atmosphere Layers of gases that surrounds the earth.
Define: Atom The smallest part of an element that can take part in chemical reactions.
Define: Autotrophic feeding Make food from small molecules using an energy source, such as light in photosynthesis.
Define: Auxin Plant hormone that affects the growth and elongation of cells in plants.
Define: Axon The long extension of a neurone that carries an impulse away from the cell body towards other neurones.
Define: Bacteria (Singular - Bacterium) Simple organisms consisting of one cell that does not contain a nucleus.
Define: Bacterium (Plural - Bacteria) Microscopic organisms, some kinds of which are pathogens, such as Salmonella.
Define: Balanced Equation Description of a reaction using the symbols and formulae of the reactants and products.
Define: Base A substance that will react with an acid to form only salt and water.
Define: Beta particles A type of ionising radiation emitted by radioactive material.
Define: Big bang theory The theory that says that the universe began from a tiny point with huge energy, and has been expanding ever since.
Define: Binomial system System of naming organisms using two latin words.
Define: Biodegradable A substance that can be broken down by microorgansims.
Define: Biodiesel Diesel fuel made from plant material.
Define: Biodiversity A variety of species of plants and animals.
Define: Biofuel Any fuel made by humans from animal or plant materials that have recently died.
Define: Biogas Methane made from animal manure or biodegradable waste from homes and farms
Define: Biomass The total mass in living organisms, usually shown through the dry mass.
Define: Birds Vertebrates that have lungs, feathers and beaks, and lay hard shelled eggs.
Define: Bitumen The fraction of crude oil with the longest molecules. It is used for making roads and roofs.
Define: Black hole Core of a red supergiant that has collapsed (imploded). Black holes are formed if the remaining core has a mass more than three times of our sun.
Define: Blackspot fungus Fungus that damages roses and is killed by sulphur dioxide in the air. Good indicator of clean air.
Define: Blood glucose regulation The control of concentration of glucose in the blood by the body.
Define: Blood worm Aquatic species that is an indicator of polluted water.
Define: Body mass index (BMI) Estimate of how healthy a person's mass is for their height.
Define: Boiling point The temperature at which all of a substance starts to turn into a gas.
Define: Bonds Forces of attraction holding atoms together in a molecule.
Define: Bromine test A test for unsaturation. Bromine water turns colourless when mixed with an unsaturated molecule.
Define: Bromine water A solution of bromine and water that turns colourless when mixed with an unsaturated molecule.
Define: Carats A measure of the purity of gold with pure gold being 24 carat.
Define: Carbon brushes Blocks of carbon connected to a circuit. They press against slip rings to make an electrical connection between the circuit and the spinning coil in a generator.
Define: Carbon cycle A sequence of processes by which carbon moves from the atmosphere, through living organisms, into sediments and into the atmosphere again.
Define: Carbon monoxide A toxic gas (CO), it is found in tobacco smoke that replaces oxygen in the blood, and so reduces the amount of oxygen carried around the body.
Define: Carbon neutral A fuel or process that does not add any carbon dioxide to the atmosphere overall.
Define: Carcinogen Something that causes cancer, such as tar in tobacco smoke.
Define: Cataracts When the lens of the eye becomes cloudy.
Define: Cell membrane Thin layer around a cell that controls what goes into and out of the cell.
Define: Cell wall Outer stiff part of some cells that helps to support a cell. Plant cell walls are made of cellulose.
Define: Cement Material made by heating limestone with clay.
Define: Central nervous system (CNS) The spinal cord and brain. These two organs form the main part of the nervous system, processing and controlling the transmission of electrical impulses.
Define: Chalk Sedimentary rock, mostly calcium carbonate, made from the remains of marine micro-organisms.
Define: Characteristics The features of an organisms.
Define: Chemical defence Preventing attack by the use of chemicals. For example, many plants produce chemicals that taste unpleasant and this puts puts herbivores off eating them.
Define: Chemical formula A combination of symbols and numbers that shows how many atoms of different kinds are in a particular molecule. In compounds that do not form molecules, it shows the ratio of elements in the compound.
Define: Chemical potential energy The energy stored in matter, which can be released by a chemical reaction (such as combustion)
Define: Chemosynthetic bacteria Bacteria that gets the energy they need to make their food from breaking down chemicals; they are producers.
Define: Chloroplast Green disc found in plant cells, which is used to make food for the plant using photosynthesis.
Define: Chordata Animals that have a supporting rod along the length of their body. All vertebrates belong to this group. (Chordates)
Define: Chromosome A long thread of molecule called DNA. Each chromosome contain a series of genes along its length.
Define: Cirrhosis Damage to the liver caused by drinking large amounts of alcohol over a long time.
Define: Classification The process of sorting organisms into groups based on their characteristics.
Define: Cleaner fish Fish that eat dead skin. Parasites from the skin of other fish.
Define: Climate change Changes to the Earth's climate, or changes in weather patterns on a global scale.
Define: Clinically obese When someone is very overweight for their height to an extent that has been shown by doctors to cause health problems. For adults this is defined as having a BMI of over 30.
Define: CNS Central Nervous System.
Define: Combustion Chemical reaction when substances burn, combining with oxygen to produce heat and waste products such as Carbon Dioxide.
Define: Competition When organisms need the same resources as each other, they struggle against each other to get those resources.
Define: Complete Combustion Combustion of hydrocarbons with enough oxygen present to convert all the fuel into carbon dioxide and water.
Define: Compound A substance containing two or more elements joined together chemically.
Define: Concentration The amount of a substance dissolved in a certain quantity of a liquid. g/cm^3
Define: Concrete Material made by mixing cement with sand, stones and water.
Define: Conductor (Electrical) A sample which allows electricity to pass through it.
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