AP Human Geography - Key Concepts


AP Human Geography Flashcards on AP Human Geography - Key Concepts, created by I'm a mess. on 11/05/2018.
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Resource summary

Question Answer
Graduated Symbol Map
Dot Map
Mercator Projection
Polar Projection
Formal Region A region with a shared characteristic; aka - uniform or homogenous region.
Functional Region A region centered around a node, and is defined by an activity rather than a characteristic. The importance of the node diminishes as you move away from the node.
Perceptual Region A region defined by people's feelings and attitudes about an area.
Sequent Occupance Refers to the successive groups of people that have left an imprint on the cultural landscape.
Arithmetic Density Total population/Total land area
Physiological Density The number of people per unit of arable land.
Agricultural Density The number of farmers per unit of arable land.
Demographic Transition Model
Malthusian Theory
Epidemiologic Transition As countries progress through the demographic transition, the primary causes of death shift away from contagious diseases towards problems with old age.
Pro-natalist Policies Government policies that attempt to increase fertility rates. (i.e. free healthcare, child care, tax incentives, etc...)
Anti-natalist Policies Government policies which seek to decrease fertility rates (i.e. the One Child policy, etc...)
Asylum Shelter and protection in one state for refugees from another country.
Internally displaced person Individuals who are uprooted within the boundaries of their own country because of conflict or human rights abuse.
Remittances Money sent by immigrants to friends and family in their home country.
Step Migration Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages.
Chain Migration Migration due to relatives/others of the same nationality.
Contagious Diffusion The rapid, widespread diffusion of a trait throughout the population.
Hierarchical Diffusion An idea of innovation that spreads from larger to smaller places, or from people of influence to the general population.
Stimulus Diffusion Occurs when the innovative idea diffuses from its hearth outward, but the original idea is changed by the new adopters.
Relocation Diffusion The spread of an idea through the physical movement of people from one place to another.
Reverse Hierarchical Diffusion When an idea spreads from a place of less influence to a larger place.
Dialect A particular form of a language used by people in a specific region or social group; often distinguished by pronunciation, cadence, and vocabulary.
Imperialism A state policy and action of extending territorial influence by direct territorial acquisition or by gaining policies and economic control of other areas.
Colonialism Implanting of settlements in a distant territory; a form of Imperialism.
Acculturation The process of adopting cultural patterns or traits from another culture.
Assimilation The process whereby a minority group gradually adopts the culture of the majority.
Ethnic religions Religion that is particular to an ethnic group; does NOT seek converts; examples: Judaism and Hinduism
Universalizing Religions Religions that appeal to all people; Examples: Islam and Christianity
Folk Culture Culture that begins in rural, isolated places; only diffuses through relocation diffusion; remains small; is usually practiced in the same location as the hearth.
Popular Culture Culture that is widespread, practiced by people of varying ethnicity, and diffuses through expansion diffusion.
Nation-state A country which is inhabited by one specific cultural/ethnic group.
Stateless Nation A nationality that inhabits several states, but is the minority in every state in which they live.
Multinational State A single country with multiple nationalities dwelling in it.
Multi-state Nation Often, the same as a stateless nation. The nation lives in multiple states/nations. (i.e. the Kurds or Palestinians)
Autonomous Region A dependent territory of a country that has some degree of self governance.
Heartland Theory A geopolitical theory developed by MacKinder in 1904 stating that whoever controlled the heartland (Eastern Europe) could easily gain control on the World Island (Europe, Asia, and Africa), then control the world.
Rimland Theory A geopolitical theory developed in 1942 by Nichols Spyman stating that those who controlled the Rimland could then control the World Island (Europe, Asia, and Africa) then the rest of the world.
Organic Theory Theorized in 1897 by Friedrich Ratzel stating that countries behave a lot like organisms. Countries seek "nourishment" in the form of gaining new territory in order to survive.
Territoriality The effort to control pieces of the Earth's surface for personal, political, or social ends.
The Law of the Sea Body of international law that seeks to define how how states must interact in the oceanic space.
Federal States A country that is a union of self-governing states or provinces. These countries give more local control to varying geographic regions and ethnic groups.
Unitary States A country that maintains control in a singular, central government.
Supranationalism The movement of power towards a collaboration of countries working together for a common political, economic, or cultural purpose. (i.e. NAFTA, NATO, UN, EU)
Devolution The transfer of power away from the central government towards subnational governments.
Nunavut A new territory created in Canada with the intent to give more autonomy to the Inuit people.
Balkanization A geopolitical term used to describe the process of division of a state into smaller states that are often hostile and uncooperative with one another (i.e. the breakup of Yugoslavia)
Centrifugal Forces A force pushing away from the center; in geography it refers to forces that divide a country physically, culturally, and/or politically.
Centripetal Forces A force holding things together; in geography it refers to unifying physical, cultural, and/or political forces.
Shatterbelt A region that finds itself under constant cultural/political stress, and often fragmented by political rivals.
Superimposed Boundary A boundary forced on a group of people without regard to cultural differences; often creates multinational states and an atmosphere for conflict. The boundary is drawn by an outside group.
Relic Boundary A boundary that no longer exists, but still has an impact on the cultural landscape.(i.e. East and West Germany)
Antecedent Boundary A political boundary that existed prior to the cultural landscape emerging in a region. (i.e. the western boundary between the U.S and Canada)
Columbian Exchange The widespread transfer of plants, animals, ideas, culture, human populations, and technology between Europe and the Americas between the 15th and 16th centuries; related to European colonization and trade following Columbus' exploration.
Green Revolution A large increase in food production in less developed countries due to an increase in the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and high yield varieties (GMOs).
Shifting Cultivation A form of subsistence agriculture found in less developed countries with a tropical climate; characterized by slash and burn farming, then moving to new land after several years (though the village still remains in the same location).
Extensive Farming Practices Utilizes small inputs relative to the amount of land being farmed; large tracts of land are used. (i.e. livestock ranching, grain farming)
Intensive Farming Practices Agricultural intensification that seeks to maximize yields through machinery and pesticides; often refers to smaller tracts of land where each piece of the land must be productive.
Von Thunen Model Model of rural land use showing that proximity to the market is a large factor in choosing crops; proximity to the market determines two important costs: transportation and the cost of land.
Horticulture The art and science of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, and flowers).
Aquaculture The rearing of aquatic animals or plants for food.
Quaternary Sector The knowledge based part of the economy; jobs are often involved in information technology, media, research and development, or consultation.
Quinary Sector The highest levels of decision making in society or economy; (i.e. top executives, government leaders, university deans, and non-profit leaders.)
Weber's Model (aka Least Cost Theory) A theory of industrial location that states that businesses will seek to minimize the costs of transportation and labor costs and maximize the benefits of agglomeration.
Rostow's Model A model for economic growth; argues that countries will develop through international trade.
Wallerstein's World Systems Theory A three tiered system that describes the core, semi-periphery, and periphery; economic and political systems are influenced by this system.
U.N Millennium Development Goals
Microloans Small loans often given to women in less developed countries to assist in starting/expanding small businesses.
Complementarity When two regions through trade can assist one another to satisfy each other's needs. - occurs when one area has a surplus of one item demanded by a second area.
Comparative Advantage The ability of a region or country to carry out an economic activity better or at a smaller price than other regions/countries.
Special Economic Zones Areas in which businesses and trade laws are different than the rest of the country. The SEZ is often found near the border/coast of the country, and the purpose is to increase trade, international investment, and job creation.
Research Triangle An eight county region in North Carolina that is anchored by the University of North Carolina, Duke, and NC state. It comprises Raleigh, Durham, and Chapel Hill. This region is especially known for high levels of education leading to high technology industries and medical facilities and jobs.
Ecotourism A form of tourism to often exotic locations to observe wild life, rare vegetation, and beautiful environments. (Costa Rica is especially known for ecotourism)
Hotelling Model A model in economic geography that argues that industries will make their products more similar and locate closer to one another.
Dependency Theory The idea that the capitalist, rich, core countries enjoy wealth at the expense of peripheral countries whose resources are sent to core countries.
Vertical Integration An approach typical of traditional mass production in which a company controls all phases of a highly complex production process.
Horizontal Integration Ownership by the same firm of a number of companies that exist at the same point on a commodity chain (e.g., PepsiCo owns Gatorade, Frito-Lay, Quaker, ... YUM! owns Taco Bell, KFC, A&W, ...).
Brochert's Epoch of Urban Growth John Borchert's model: (1967); recognized four epochs in the evolution of the American metropolis based on the impact of transportation & communication: • 1) Sail-Wagon Epoch (1790-1830) - associated with low technology • 2) Iron Horse Epoch (1830-70); steam-powered locomotive & spreading rails • 3) Steel-Rail Epoch (1870-1920); full impact of Ind. Rev. (steel), hinterlands expand • 4) Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch (1920-70); gas-powered internal combustion engine • High Technology Epoch (1970-today ); expansion of service & information industries (not part of Brochert's model)
World Cities Cities that link major economic activities in the global economy. (i.e. Los Angeles, New York, London, etc...)
Rank-Size Rule A model that attempts to predict the size of the population of cities in the urban hierarchy; states that the size of a city is inversely related to its rank; the second largest city is 1/2 the largest, the third largest city is 1/3 the largest, etc...
Primate City The largest is at least double the size of the next largest city; it is also the most culturally/economically expressive of the country, and is often the capital city.
Christaller's Central Place Theory A theory that seeks to explain the number, size, and location of human settlements in urban systems; the settlements serve as "central places" serving the surrounding areas. - Range = the maximum distance a person is willing to travel for a service. - Threshold = the minimum number of people needed to support a service.
Burgess Concentric Zone Model
Hoyt Sector Model
Harris and Ullman Multiple Nuclei Model
Galactic City Model This model especially emphasizes the growth of edge cities in the urban system.
Latin American City Model
African City Model
Mixed Use Zoning Zoning Laws that mark areas to be used for commercial and residential purposes.
New Urbanism An urban concept that promotes walkability, closer sense of community, proximity to work, public green space, and less time commuting through mixed use development.
Greenbelts An area of open land around a city on which building is restricted.
Disamenity Sector The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not served by city services and are controlled by gangs and drug lords.
Gentrification The process of changing a neighborhood from low income to middle income through the addition of homebuyers willing to renovate properties often attracting businesses that serve the new demographic.
Brown Fields Old, abandoned industrial sites that may have left the soil contaminated; have left a portion of the city with a less than desirable site.
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