|1. You are going to measure the relationship between time of studying and getting marks of the Year 9BG class. a. What is the aim/purpose of this experiment?
|The aim of the experiment is to measure the relationship between time put into studying the marks achieved by the Year 9BG class.
|b. What is a hypothesis and give one for the experiment above.
|An educated guess. A suitable hypothesis for the experiment above may be – the more the students study the content, the better their marks.
|c. What are the 3 types of variables and give a definition for each.
|Controlled variables – The ones that are kept the same throughout the entire experiment. Independent variable – the one that you change, this one is what you are testing and it causes the dependent to change. Dependent variable – The one that is ‘dependent’ on the independent, it changed because the independent changed, it is what you are measuring.
|d. What are your following variables of the experiment above:
|Controlled variables: Material studied, students being in 9BG, students doing the same assessments. Independent variable: The time studied Dependent variable: The marks achieved
|2. What is an inference? Give an example.
|A logical idea that comes from an observation. For example if I see a person wearing a white coat, smart looking clothes, has a stethoscope and tools, I could make an inference they are a doctor.
|3. What is a prediction? Give an example.
|A statement about something happening or not based on (but not always) current experience or knowledge. For example, it is really sunny and hot today and is Summer, most likely it will also be sunny and hot tomorrow.
|MODULE 1.2 - 4. What is a hazard and what is a risk?
|A hazard is anything that could cause harm, while a risk is the likeliness you would get harmed from a hazard.
|5. What are the 3 ways that laboratory chemicals can enter your body?
|Ingestion, inhalation and absorption.
|6. When working with any type of chemical, what are the 6 things you should do?
|- Identify the chemical codes and be aware of the dangers they are warning about. - Become familiar with the relevant Safety Data Sheet (SDS). - Use safety glasses and protective clothing like lab coats (Personal protective equipment). - Wipe up any spills. - Wash your hands thoroughly after handling the chemical - Put the chemical away properly after use.
|7. List the risks of working outdoors and possible measures to reduce these risks
|8. Ethics in the laboratory are very important. What guidelines must be followed when collecting data using people?
|- Participant details must be kept confidential. - Participants should be told the purpose of the experiment and what they will be expected to do so they can give consent. - Must agree to participate and should be able to withdraw from the experiment at any time.
|MODULE 1.3 - 9. What is a fair test and what does this ensure?
|One in which only one variable is tested at a time. This ensures that the results of the experiment can be used to either support or refute (not support) the hypothesis.
|10. What is the purpose of having a control group in an experiment?
|A control group in a scientific experiment is a group separated from the rest of the experiment where the independent variable being tested cannot influence the results. This isolates the independent variable's effects on the experiment and can help rule out alternate explanations of the experimental results.
|11. A good scientist needs to be objective, not subjective, what does this mean?
|This means they are free of personal bias and not influenced by personal views.
|12. What are the 2 types of data and what does each describe briefly?
|Quantitative – describes numerical values (numbers) Qualitative – descriptions in words, not in numbers.
|13. What are the 2 types of quantitative data and what is the difference between the two?
|Discrete – finite number of values, usually what can be counted. Continuous – infinite number of values between a certain range, usually can’t be counted, usually only measured.
|MODULE 1.4 - 14. What type of data is a column graph most suitable for?
|Discrete data – data that can be counted.
|15. What type of data is a line graph most suitable for?
|Continuous data – data that can be measured.
|16. When drawing a line graph, which variable goes on the x and y axis?
|Independent variable always on the x axis, dependent variable always on the y axis.
|17. Below you are given results of an experiment that tested how long it takes for water to boil under a blue Bunsen burner flame. The results are below. Volume of water (mL) Time in seconds 25mL 30 seconds 50mL 54 seconds 75mL 79 seconds 100mL 109 seconds 125mL 140 seconds 150mL 186 seconds a. State a hypothesis for your experiment.
|The higher the volume of water, the greater the time it will take to boil.
|b. Which of the following is my independent and dependent variable, how did you know?
|Independent = volume, dependent = time. Because the time is affected or is ‘dependent’ on the volume, also the time is what we are measuring. The volume is also what we are changing ourselves for testing, meaning it is our independent.
|c. Is your data discrete or continuous, how did you know?
|Continuous, because it is data we measured and you can have infinite amount of time within your data.
|18. You had someone run a race, and recorded their heart rate over a minute. Time in seconds Heart beats per second 0sec 86bps 20 sec 90bps 40 sec 110bps 60 sec 132bps What do you think is the normal heart rate of the person, explain your answer.
|Around 86bps as that was the heart beats per second at rest (0 seconds).
|MODULE 7.1 19. What is metabolism?
|The chemical reactions that occur to maintain life.
|20. Describe the 2 types of metabolism. Give an example in the body of each (NOT IN REVISION SHEET!!!!)
|Catabolism – breaks down larger molecules into smaller ones, releases energy. Anabolism – forms smaller molecules into larger ones, consumes/uses energy. Catabolism: reactions that breakdown organic matter such as cellular respiration which breaks down glucose to release energy; also release of waste into harmless substances for excretion. Anabolism: reactions that build complex molecules from simpler substances such as construction of new cells and cell components such as proteins and genetic material
|21. What are enzymes and how do they work?
|Special proteins that can speed up a reaction without being used up in the process.
|22. Draw the lock-and-key model to show how enzymes work. Also explain how it works (NOT IN REVISION SHEET!!!)
|Only the correctly sized key (substrate) fits into the key hole (active site) of the lock (enzyme).
|23. What is a substrate?
|What an enzyme attaches to, this is what is going to change in the chemical reaction.
|24. What are the 3 common types of nutrients you can get and what are they broken down into?
|Carbohydrates which are broken down into glucose. Proteins which are broken down into amino acids. Lipids which are broken down into fatty acids.
|25. Why do the above substances have to be broken down first?
|So that when the food reaches the small intestine, it is in a simpler form and can be absorbed easily.
|26. What is diffusion? Draw an example below.
|The movement of particles in a substance from an area of high concentration to low concentration.
|27. Give an example of diffusion that occurs in the body.
|There are 2 main examples. Can either mention how inside the small intestine there is a large concentration of nutrients and a small amount in the blood, so diffusion occurs through villi where the broken down nutrients move from the higher concentration small intestine, to the lower concentration blood. The other example is when we breathe in air we have a high concentration of oxygen in our alveoli (lungs), which diffuse to the lower oxygen concentration blood to be transported around the body. Same goes where the blood has high carbon dioxide concentration levels, it diffuses to the low carbon dioxide concentration alveoli to be breathed out.
|28. What states of matter does diffusion occur?
|Liquid or gas.
|29. Describe what is happening in Figure 7.1.5 in your book.
|30. What muscle is the heart made of?
|31. The heart muscle is involuntary, what does this mean?
|This means that it moves on its own (contracts and relaxes) without any input from the brain.
|32. Draw the heart (figure 7.1.6) with labels.
Image: Heart (binary/octet-stream)
|33. State the function of the SA node (pacemaker) and AV node.
|SA node initiates the rhythm of the heartbeat. AV node stimulates both ventricles to contract.
|34. Describe ventricular fibrillation.
|When the impulses in the ventricles become disorganized because the stimulus is not picked up correctly, then the muscles of the ventricle begin to twitch spasmodically.
|35. What is the graph that shows an image of the heartbeat called (abbreviation and full word)?
|ECG - electrocardiogram
|36. In the ECG, what does the small curve going up and large curve going up each represent?
|Small curve = atria contract, Large curve = ventricles contract.
|37. What hormone is produced when you go through stress or fear?
|38. How does noradrenalin affect the heart rate?
|Increases the heart rate at which the heart beats and strength of the contractions.
|39. Briefly, how does vigorous exercise increase heart rate.
|- As cellular respiration increases, so does the carbon dioxide levels in the blood; this increase is detected and the nerves stimulate the heart to beat faster. - As muscular activity increases, more blood is pumped back into the right atrium, receptors send nerve impulses to the brain, which stimulates the heart to beat faster.
|40. What is the function of the mitochondria in the cell?
|To allow cellular respiration to take place, this provides us with energy.
|41. What is the equation for cellular respiration and what is its purpose (NOT IN REVISION SHEET!!!!)
|Cellular respiration is the process by which cells in plants and animals break down sugar and turn it into energy, which is then used to perform work at the cellular level. The purpose of cellular respiration is simple: it provides cells with the energy they need to function.
|42. What organ removes wastes and what are its 4 functions?
|Liver. It breaks down hormones; breaks down haemoglobin from dead red blood cells, creating products that are added to bile and then disposed of through the digestive system; breaks down or modifies toxic substances and most chemicals; converts ammonia to urea.
|43. Describe interdependence of systems and give 2 examples using figure 7.1.12 of how these 2 systems are interdependent of each other.
|Interdependence means that 2 or more things are dependent on each other. For example the oxygen that goes into the lungs (respiratory system) must go into the bloodstream (circulatory system) to transport oxygen around the body for functions to work and get rid of carbon dioxide. Without the respiratory system, the circulatory system would not have oxygen to transport around the body and get rid of waste in the form of carbon dioxide, and without the circulatory system, the respiratory system would be overflowing with oxygen and carbon dioxide, so it would be under pressure and no longer function. Without the other, both would not be able to function correctly.
|MODULE 7.2 - 44. What are the 2 parts of the nervous system and what are the made up of?
|Central Nervous System (CNS) – made up of your brain and spinal cord. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – made up of nerves that carry messages to and from the CNS and other parts of the body.
|45. What are neurons and their function?
|Neurons are specialised cells that transmit electrical messages from one part of your body to another at very high speeds.
|46. What are nerve impulses and what direction to they travel?
|Electrical messages, can only travel in one direction.
|47. List the functions of the following: Cell body: Dendrites: Axon: Axon terminals:
|Cell body: Contains the nucleus, the control centre of the cell. Dendrites: Branch out from the cell body and receive messages from other nerve cells, which are sent on to the cell body. Axon: Sends nerve impulses in only one direction, away from the cell body. Axon terminals: Pass the message on to the next neuron.
|48. What are the 3 main types of neurons and what are each of their functions.
|Motor neurons – carry messages from the CNS to effectors. Effectors are muscles or glands (tissues that secrete hormones) that translate the messages into actions. Connector neurons – transmit messages between neurons in the CNS. Sensory neurons – have specialised receptors which are sensitive to stimuli such as heat and light. They carry messages to the brain and spinal cord from cells in the sense organs (eyes, ears, tongue, skin)
|49. What chemical is released by the axon terminals and what is its function?
|Neurotransmitter. It carries the message from the axon of one neuron to the dendrite of the next neuron.
|50. What is the synapse?
|The space where neurotransmitter is released.
|51. How do you think you having a fever would affect the release of neurotransmitter?
|Because your body has an increase in temperature, your brain releases more neurotransmitter to try to control the body’s temperature and maintain balance.
|52. What is myelin sheath and what are its 2 functions?
|Insulating layer that covers neurons. It electrically insulates the neurons from each other and increases the speed of the nerve impulse.
|53. Describe Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and why is it important?
|It uses strong magnetic fields to distinguish different types of body tissue and is important as it is useful in diagnosing brain tumours and finding areas of brain injury.
|54. How much of the brain does the cerebrum occupy?
|More than 80%.
|55. What does the cerebrum control?
|Higher intellectual functions such as your conscious thoughts and the intentional (voluntary) movement of every body part.
|56. What are the 2 parts of the cerebrum and what does the left side usually account for and what does the right side usually account for?
|Left and right cerebral hemispheres. The left side usually controls language and logical/mathematical thinking, while the right side usually controls musical and artistic abilities.
|57. What do the right and left sides of the brain control in terms of the sides of the body?
|They control the opposite sides. Left side of the brain controls the right side and the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body.
|58. Where is the cerebellum located and what is it responsible for?
|At the base of the cerebrum. It is responsible for coordination and balance.
|59. Draw figure 7.2.9 of the brain (memorise this)
Image: Brain (binary/octet-stream)
|60. What is the function of the brain stem/medulla and spinal cord?
|They control vital body functions, such as breathing, blood pressure and heart rate.
|61. What 3 parts of the brain are involved in protecting the brain and spinal cord and in what way (mention if they protect only the brain, or both brain and spinal cord)?
|Cranium – bone that protects the brain. Vertebrae – bony structures that protect the spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid – surrounds the brain AND spinal cord, it acts like a shock absorber and provides nutrients to the neurons.
|62. You smell a real dank egg fart in class, this causes you to make a disturbed face and cover your nose. Make a flowchart to represent this stimulus-response situation. (Use figure 7.2.10 to help you) – State the stimulus, receptors involved, sensory/motor nerve involved, hypothalamus, effectors and actions because of the effectors.