Week 7 Drug abuse and addiction


Pharmacology for nursing Flashcards on Week 7 Drug abuse and addiction, created by Elizabeth Then on 02/10/2017.
Elizabeth Then
Flashcards by Elizabeth Then, updated more than 1 year ago
Elizabeth Then
Created by Elizabeth Then about 6 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Stimulants ADDICTIVE Natural-Cocaine, nicotine, caffeine Synthetic- Amphetamine
Cocaine effects wanted and unwanted Wanted: increased energy, confidence, orgasmic unwanted: paranoia, depression, CV effects
Cocaine targets DA and NA transporters (Inhibitor only) (MAO)- non-transported uptake inhibitors
Amphetamine wanted and unwanted effects wanted: increased energy, confidence, loss of appetite Unwanted: anxiety, paranoia, CV effects (high BP)
Amphetamine targets: DA and NA transporters, uptake and vesicular use VMAT, (MAO)- substrate-type releasers (Inhibitor and release)
Neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) motor stimulation and reward
Neurotransmitter Noradrenaline (NA/NE) cardiovascular stimulation
Hallucinogens NOT ADDICTIVE Natural- mescaline cactus,mushroom psilocybin Synthetic-LSD
Hallucinogen action and targets alter 5 HT pathway activity targets 5 HT receptors, MAO inhibitor, uptake transporter
Hallucinogen effects wanted and unwanted wanted: increased energy, creative thinking, hallucinations unwanted: dizziness, paranoia, fear, panic, flashbacks, toxicity
MDMA ectasy mechanism of action inhibit 5 HT transport, and releases 5 HT. inhibits MAO
MDMA unwanted effects hyperthermia, coma, seizures, CV, increase BP, pulse, arrhythmias
Opioid mechanism agonists at Mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors, also partial agonists
Who uses/abuses opioids? addicts on the streets, high functioning long-term users, health care professionals. pain patients
Heroin-illicit opioid acute effects: relief of physical/emotional pain, sedation, euphoria, hypoventilation, pupil constriction, nausea, vomiting, decreased gut motility
Heroin mechanism of action metabolised to morphine= long duration of action
Effects of heroin overdose fatal, respiratory depression, pinpoint pupils, treat with naloxone
naloxone effects antagonist which displaces opioids from receptor (strong binding, but no activation)
Chronic opioid use tolerance, dependence withdrawal symptoms: anxiety, irritability, agression, nausea, vomiting, dilated pupils
Opioid addiction mild 2-3 symptoms, moderate 4-5 symptoms, severe 6 or more symptoms, taking in larger amounts, continued use
Treatment of opioid addiction 1. manage detox, withdrawal 2. help with abstinence, reduce craving, reduce reward on relapse, prevent harm from continued use 3. help pt get life back on track, counselling, job etc
Chronic alcohol consumption causes tolerance, decrease in activity of GABA, increase in glutamate activity, reduction in release of endorphins, dopamine. physical dependence
Chronic alcohol use withdrawal symptoms tremor, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, headache, seizures, hallucinations, confusion, agitation, delirium
Chronic alcohol use: withdrawal management long acting benzodiazepines-short time (abuse, potential), thiamine, counselling
Pharmacotherapies: acamprosate restores balance and normal activity of glutamate and GABA systems, reduce symptoms of protracted withdrawal, but down not reduce symptoms of acute withdrawal 6-12 months
Pharmacotherapies: Naltrexone opioid receptor antagonsit, blocks the pleasureab;e effects of endogenous opioids indirectly released by alcohol 3-6 months
Pharmacotherapies: Disulfiram inhibition of hepatic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, increased acetaldehyde-aversive reaction on consuming alcohol-facial flushing, nausea, vomiting. 3-6 months, at last 48 hrs post ceasing alcohol
Pharmacoltherapies Nicotine (NRT) chewing gum, lozenges, transdermal patches, inhaler, nasal spray useful of dependent patients, on nicotine poor compliance due to lower nicotine levels and slow onset of action contraindication: recent CV disease
Non- nicotine containing drugs bupropion: anti depressant, NA, and DA reuptake inhibitor side effects: dry mouth, nausea, insomnia, tremor, excessive sweating
Non- nicotine containing drugs Varenicline- nicotine receptor parital agonist side effects: nausea, abnormal dreams, constipation, abdominal pain
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