# Sociology 170

Course by HOLLY DOOGE, updated more than 1 year ago Contributors

### Description

Population Problems

## Module Information

### Population Concepts and Measures

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Population: collection of persons alive at a specified point in time who meet certain criteria; collectively persisting through time despite members continuously changing Count: absolute number of a population or any demographic event in a specific area at a specific time period underlying building block of all demographic statistics i.e. US census Population Pyramid: display of population's age and sex composition Rate: frequency of demographic events in population during a specific time period divided by the population "at risk" of the event occurring during that time period number of occurrences per person-years of exposure to risk of occurrence how common is an occurrence? crude rate = entire population, specific rate = subgroup (those "at risk") CBR(0,T) = number of births [0,T] per number of person-years lived [0,T] CDR(0,T) = number of deaths [0,T] per number of person-years lived [0,T] Growth Balance Equation: N(T) = N(0) + B[0,T] - D[0,T] + I[0,T] - O[0,T] Natural Increase = births and deaths Net Migration = in migrations and out migrations Period Effects: consequences of historical change; broad, society wide events that impact all ages at point in time Cohort: aggregate of all units that experience a particular demographic event during a specific time interval    person-year: measure of amount of time [0,T] an individual is alive during that period
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### Malthus and the Demographic Transition

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Thomas Malthus: 18th century British philosopher and economist famous for ideas on population growth Malthusian Perspective: population growth is potentially exponential while food supply growth is arithmetical at best (POVERTY CAUSES OVERPOPULATION) Principles of Population: food and passion between the sexes is necessary to the existence of man therefore there is prescribed poverty for a certain segment of humanity people have natural urge to reproduce but food supply can't keep up Positive Check: measures of moral or physical nature which prematurely weaken and destroy human frame (causes of mortality) Preventive Check: limits to birth (birth control)  moral restraint = postpone marriage and remain chaste until you can support a large family (only acceptable method according to Malthus) Food Insecurity: state of being without reliable access to a sufficient quantity of affordable and nutritious food food production does not equal food security Neo-malthusian: those who criticize Malthus's insistence on the value of moral restraint while accepting many of his other conclusions favor birth control, led to contraception awareness prudential restraint: waiting until you can support a family, but not necessarily refraining from premarital sex Tragedy of the Commons: economic theory of a situation within a shared resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling that resource through their collective action cost shared by all --&gt; low cost to individual benefits reaped by one --&gt; high benefit to individual everyone using resources, no checks on individual usage Demographic Transition: transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country/region develops from a pre-industrial to an industrial economic system Birth rates = Death rates incipient decline Birth rates &gt;&gt; Death rates Birth rates &gt; Death rates (natural increase) transitional growth Birth rates ~ Death rates Birth rates &lt; Death rates (natural decrease) Anti-natalist: philosophical position that assigns negative value to birth Pro-natalist: advocation/support of high birth rate
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### Population Growth and the Environment

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Population Growth: growth rate slowing, but adding more and more people every year; population grows but fertility rate declines Doubling Time: period of time required for a population to double in size Dt = 70/growth rate IPAT Equation: formula put forward to describe the impact of human activity on the environment I = human impact on environment P = population size A = affluence of population (per capita consumption --&gt; as consumption increases, total environmental impact does also) T = technology (used to produce more goods, also makes processes efficient) Population Momentum: tendency of population to continue to grow after replacement-level fertility is achieved Population Projection: exercise showing possible future size of a population Carrying Capacity: maximum number of people the world can support Threshold Effect: sudden and radical change often occurring after surpassing a quantitative limit Synergy: environmental stresses interact and progress each other; combined effects of two environmental stresses is greater than their sum in isolation
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### Unit 1-3 Review

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Population Concepts and Measures population entrance exit growth balance equation natural increase net migration rate (annualized/group/period/crude vs specific) person-year cohort count ratio (sex/age-dependency) age effects period effects cohort effects Preston2001Ch1 PopulationHandbook   Malthus and the Demographic Transition pro-natalist anti-natalist Thomas Malthus Malthusian Perspective Principle of Population checks to growth (positive/preventive) moral restraint food insecurity neo-malthusian Marxian Perspective Demographic Transition prudential restraint Tragedy of the Commons WeeksCh3   Population Growth and the Environment general/age specific/total fertility rate replacement-level fertility population momentum IPAT Equation Threshold Effect Synergy Population Projection Carrying Capacity Doubling Time PopulationHandbook Lam- Next 4 billion Hans Rosling- Magic Washing Machine
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### Why Fertility Changes

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General Fertility Rate: (number of births / number of women 15-49) x1000 Age-specific Fertility Rate: (number of births to women x-y / number of women x-y) x1000 Total Fertility Rate: average number of children that would be born to w woman by the time she ended childbearing if she were to pass through all her childbearing years conforming to age-specific fertility rates of a given year; fertility of all women at a given point in time sum of ASFR x # of years in each age category synthetic measure, but gives best picture of how many children women are currently having Replacement Level Fertility: level of fertility at which women in same cohort have exactly enough daughters to "replace" themselves in the population 2.1 births per woman virtually all developed countries are at or below Fertility Transition: shift in a society's fertility trends Industrial Society- fertility at or below replacement level Developing Society- significant fertility declines Less Developed Countries- no significant fertility reductions Demographic Transition Theory: populations grow along a predictable 5-stage model development is the best contraceptive Ideation Theory: groups differ in fertility behavior because of cultural values Diffusion Theory: ideas about appropriate family size and methods of birth control can diffuse more quickly within culturally homogenous populations Theory of Wealth Flows: Jack Caldwell's revisionist theory that there are only two stable fertility regimes Traditional Societies- fertility is high as possible, children provide wealth flow, more incentive to have kids (WEALTH FLOWS UP)​​​​​​​ Modern Societies- low childbearing, parents provide for children, few incentives to have kids (WEALTH FLOWS DOWN)
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### Human Control Over Fertility

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Family Planning Programs: organized effort to make effective contraception accessible to those who want to determine number and timing of pregnancies Population Policies: set of government statements and actions designed to influence behavior of people in order to achieve some social good direct policies: government action taken for purpose of affecting a demographic outcome indirect policies: government actions that may indirectly have some demographic effects Bongaarts model: model tracing favorable fertility outcomes to the use of family planning resources  Helms Amendment: (1973) Roe vs Wade made abortion legal, however no foreign assistance funds could be used toward abortion as family planning Bucharest Conference: (1974) US saw rapid population growth as serious impediment to development, supporting family planning programs is the most promising fix, but developing countries saw development as the best form of contraception Mexico City policy: (1984, Ronald Reagan) If organization has anything to do with abortion they will not receive funds from the US Contraceptive Prevalence Rate: percent of women married and 15-49 using any method of contraception influenced by availability and supply of contraceptives doesn't include sexually active single teens Unmet Need for Family Planning: proportion of women not using contraception aged 15-49 and either married or not wanting more kids Typical Use: the norm, reflecting effectiveness of each method for the average couple who do not always use it correctly or consistently (few achieve flawless use, especially over long time) Perfect Use: measure of technical effectiveness of each method but only when used exactly as specified and consistently followed
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### Lowest-Low and Sex-Selective Fertility

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Sex Ratio at Birth Population Sex Ratio Missing Women Second Demographic Transition: prominent theoretical framework of post-transitional fertility that links changes in values with a shift toward more more expressive, liberal, and individualized values and changes in family decline in marriage and rise of less "traditional" family forms Low Fertility: fertility is moderately below replacement with a total fertility rate of less than 2.1 births per woman Lowest-Low Fertility: fertility below low fertility and consequently also below "safety zone" implying generation size will fall rapidly and massive migration would be needed to offset this decline; less than 1.3 births per woman Post-transitional Fertility Postponement Transition: shift in family formation from younger ages to higher reproductive ages "tempo transition" Parity: state or condition of being equal, especially regarding status or pay US Fertility Differentials
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### Unit 4-6 Review

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Why Fertility Changes general/age specific/total fertility rate replacement level fertility fertility transition demographic transition theory ideation theory diffusion theory theory of wealth flows Ansley Coale Hirschman1994   Human Control Over Fertility family planning programs population policies Bongaarts model Mexico City policy Bucharest Conference Contraceptive Prevalence Rate Unmet Need for Family Planning Typical/perfect use Helms Amendment Kaiser2011 UNFPA   Lowest-Low and Sex-Selective Fertility   Sex Ratio at Birth Population Sex Ratio Missing Women Second Demographic Transition Low Fertility Lowest-Low Fertility Post-transitional Fertility Postponement Transition Parity US Fertility Differentials HeskethandXing2006 Sobotka2017
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