# Physical Science

Course by Savannah Todd, updated more than 1 year ago Contributors

4th hour

## Module Information

### Tempature and Time Graphs

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#### Context

The graph shows phases and phase changes... Phases are shown when the graph is growing  The lowest (to the bottom) of the graph is always where there is a solid The middle is always where there is a liquid The top is always where there is a gas  Phase Changes are shown when the graph levels off or stays the same The one lowest (between solid and liquid) is melting point The one highest (between liquid and gas) is boiling point With each phase change more energy is added
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### Phases notes

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Describing states of matter Types of matter (from 1 being least amount of energy to 4 being most amount of energy) Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Where tempatures are extremlely high (on sun) plasma is known to exist The state of matter that can exsist at extremely low temps is called a bose-einstein condensate _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ There are forces of attraction between all matter _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Solids Solids have a definate shape and volume because the particales in a solid vibrate in fixed locations Most solids have particles that packed close together arranged in a regular pattern Not all solids have a definate shape though -example: copper can bend _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Liquids  Liquids do not have a definate shape but do have a definate volume  Liquid particles In constant motion  have forced attraction  Liquid particles are more randomly placed than solids  Liquids have a stronger force of attraction compared to gases and solids  _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Gases  Gases do not have a defined shape or volume  The container its placed in determines a gases shape and volume  Because the particles quickly moving and are far apart the forces of attraction are too weak to have a noticable effect.
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### Phase changes notes

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A phase change is the reversible physical change that takes place when a substance changes from one state to another _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Types of phase changes Freezing - liquid to solid Melting - solid to liquid Vaporization (boiling) - liquid to gas  Condenstion- gas to liquid  Sublimation- solid to gas Depostion- gas to solid   _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The tempature during a phase change remains constant (doesnt change)  During a phase change it is either absorbing energy              -OR- releasing energy  _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Endothermic: Internal heat (adding heat/energy) -ex. Melting ice cubes, Boiling water  Exothermic: External heat (removing heat/energy) -ex. freezing ice cubs, burning sugar  _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ VAPORIZATION   Evaporation - Vaporization is the phase change - at the surface of a liquid - below the boiling point of a liquid (takes longer) Boiling  - Vaporization is the phase change - throughout the liquid - at the boilding point of a liquid (quicker)
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### Gas law notes

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### Phase diagram

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### Why was mecury used in thermometers

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