AS Politics: Party Policies and Ideas


A Levels Politics (Unit One ) Mind Map on AS Politics: Party Policies and Ideas, created by yasmyncharles on 07/04/2014.
Mind Map by yasmyncharles, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by yasmyncharles almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

AS Politics: Party Policies and Ideas
  1. What Is a Political Party?
    1. Definition: An organisation that develops a set of political goals and policies which it seeks to convert into political action by obtaining government office, or a share in government or by influencing government of the day.
      1. Features: 1)Must be Organised to carry out functions 2) Must develop policies and programmes to present to the electorate in order to secure the election of their candidates. 3) Must gain public support for their policies (strategies to do so) 4) Must select suitable candidates 5) Rely on successful leadership
        1. Functions: 1) Making Policy - develop policy, hope to put into effect when gained power. 2) Educative Function - Inform public on political issues + present alternatives from which they can choose i.e immigration, EU 3) Candidates - Stand for election + take public offices. Act as training ground for leaders + help select suitable leader. 4) Functions - Organise elections, inform voters about issues and candidates, encourage voters. 5) Westminster - Run business of Westminster Parliament, devolved assemblies and local govt. 6) Reinforcing Consent - for political system of the UK by operating the system of parliamentary democracy
        2. Difference Between Left and Right
          1. Left: 1) Collective action & importance of community to resolve problems. 2) Interests of wider community superior to those of the individuals. 3) Role of state important to create jobs and intervene to help. 4) Positive view of human nature. 5) Desire to provide for less fortunate in society to reduce inequalities
            1. Right: 1) Individual action to resolve problems instead of relying on state. 2) Individuals more important than community at large (individual choice). 3) Role of state X creates dependence. 4) Individuals have flawed human nature - strict rules to ensure law and order in society. 5) Inequality and hierarchy - natural and desirable (some deserve to be better of than others.
            2. Conservatism
              1. Definition: A state of mind and a political movement that is naturally averse to excessive change and reform. It is skeptical about strongly held political views, prefers the known to the unknown and generally supports the retention of traditional insitutions and values
                1. Traditional Conservatism: Pre 1970s. Core values of order, tradition, nationalism, gradual change, pragmatism, ONE NATION - organic society where everyone is part of the same single body (the nation) - everyone is interdependent - rich must therefore be responsible for the poorer in society
                  1. New Right Conservatism : aka Thatcherism. Values: Privatisation, disengagement, trade union reform, low taxation, against dependency on state
                    1. Thatcher a traditional tory: Yes = support for business and commerce, maintenance of social hierarchy - preservation of old power structures and institutions and stress on importance of trad family values and traditions. No = Deregulation and free market, lover taxation and trade union reforms (monetarism) - radical reform
                      1. Factionalism: A tendency for political parties to split into groups who hold views that are different from the mainstream ideas and policies of the party.
                        1. Conservative Way Forward: embraces polices of Thatcher inc. neoliberalism and neoconservatism
                          1. Tory Reform Group: trad One Nation conservatives. Support for social justice, individual liberty and moderate law and order policies
                            1. Cameronian Conservatives: Neoliberal, orthodox liberalism, welfare reform, big society
                            2. Cameron
                              1. Trad Elements: Pragmatism, trad institutions and values, rights of property owners, help disadvantaged
                                1. New Right: Committed to free markets and maximising comp. Keep direct taxes low. Prevent state interference and overspending in economy. Attack benefits seen as disincentive to not work.
                                  1. Liberal Elements: Accept diversity in society, promote tolerance of difference groups and cultures. Seek to protect individual rights and liberties. Reduce inequalities. Big Society - local democracy/voluntary community actio. Cautious interest in constitutional reforms. Environmental protection
                                    1. *effect of the coalition?
                                2. Socalism
                                  1. Definition: A state of mind and a political movement that places such vales as equality of opportunity, social justice and collectivism high on it's scale of values. It is either opposed to free market capitalism or it proposes measures to moderate its undesirable effects
                                    1. Labour
                                      1. Old Labour: Pre 1990s. State ownership of main industries. Redistribution of Wealth through high tax on rich. Unemployment - greatest evil so creation of jobs is of utmost importance. Close links with trade unions. Sceptical of businesses - exploit workers. Total commitment to welfare state. UK to withdraw from EU. Concentration on causes of crime rather than punishment
                                        1. New Labour: Blair's changes. Capitalism given free rein with as little state interference as possible. Cooler links with trade unions. See welfare benefits as creating dependence on state.Individuals choice between public and private sector - maximum choice for the family. Do not overtax rich. Tough on crime & causes. Support for EU. Constitutional changes made. Inflation = greatest evil.
                                          1. Policies Old and New Labour agree on: Social Justice - some wealth redistribution, Importance of welfare state and inc. spending on NHS * education, Minimum wage & holiday entitlement - reg of private businesses/.Equality of opportunity - no matter what social background.
                                            1. Milliband
                                              1. Red: *See Old Labour. Policy: Freeze on energy prices, Still not likely to endorse full red labour thinking despite winning within the Trade Union voting trench.
                                                1. Blue: Modification to New Labour. Stronger focus on social conservative mindset on issues like immigration and crime - appeal to working class vote. Defend trad institutions & conservative attitudes of family/faith/work ethic inc. community & solidarity. Include BNP within immigration discussions. Critics: Harriet Harman - defence of trad social relationships seen as anti-woman. Inc. of BNP - too far right.
                                                  1. Purple: *see New Labour.
                                                    1. Finding it difficult to find a post- new Labour agenda
                                                2. Liberalism
                                                  1. Definition: A state of political mind or a political movement that places freedom, rights and tolerance high on it's scale of values.
                                                    1. Core Values: Freedom and rights, tolerance, equality of opportunity, social justice, welfare, constitutionalism and democracy
                                                      1. Policies: Fair taxation - replace council tax with local income tax (based on ability to pay). Raising or starting point of income tax. Support for 50% tax rate on incomes above £100,000 pa. Economic management - minimal role in management of economy. Welfare State - high priority and standard. Law & Order - causes of crime, Constitutional reform - stronger HRA, further devolution = more democratic, electoral reform. EU - decentralisation of power - good. Foreign policy - promotion of HR through economic and diplomatic means, not military intervention. Environment - state taking lead role on issues
                                                      2. Consensus and Adversary Politics
                                                        1. Consensus: A circumstance where two or more major political parties agree on most basic policies. In other words, a period when there are no major political conflicts. It may also refer to a single issue where different parties agree to support the same policies. This implies a lack of strong ideology in politics
                                                          1. Adversary: The opposite of consensus. This is a circumstance where political parties are engaged in considerable conflict over political issues. This also implies there are strong ideological conflicts in politics.
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