Th1L07 Enzymes


Medicine Y1 (Theme 1 | Cells and organelles) Mind Map on Th1L07 Enzymes, created by Emma Allde on 17/08/2016.
Emma Allde
Mind Map by Emma Allde, updated more than 1 year ago
Emma Allde
Created by Emma Allde over 7 years ago

Resource summary

Th1L07 Enzymes
  1. Main properties
    1. biological catalysts
      1. speed up the rate of the reaction
        1. reduces necessary free energy (delta G) need to overcome the activation energy
        2. do NOT alter final equilibrium b/w reactants and products
          1. proteins
            1. Dependent on many weak bonds e.g. hydrogen bonds, electrostatic salt links and hydrophobic interactions
              1. Makes enzymes sensitive to changes in their environment
                1. Inactive enzyme
                  1. Denatured enzyme state
                  2. e.g. by eating the protein, giving rise to a disorganised or tangled structure in which the enzyme no longer has any catalytic activity
                    1. temperature
                      1. Between 20C, 30C and 40C for enzymes found in the body, you will usually speed up the reaction
                        1. Up to 50C and beyond, denaturing of the protein will occur, similarly going to far below 20C will also reduce reaction velocity
                2. Enzyme catalysis
                  1. Enzymes contain an active site
                    1. substrate binds to the enzyme at the active site producing an enzyme-substrate complex
                      1. enzyme is then disregarded at the final product is revealed
                        1. Stickase metaphor
                          1. illustrates that enzymes should be complementary to the substrates transition phase rather than the substrate itself to bring about the activation of the reaction > product
                        2. Substrate specificity
                          1. catalyse only one type of reaction and will act only on a few related molecules ('Group...')
                            1. few are so specific that they will act only on a certain enzyme even to the point will it will only act on one stereoisomer
                            2. presence of a groove or cleft of defined shape called the active site into which only the substrate of the correct shape and charge can fit
                              1. Relevance?
                                1. multiple enzymes within the same cellular compartment can co-exist without interfering with e/o
                                  1. allows for multiple metabolic pathways w/i cells
                                2. Systematic classification scheme of 6 main classes


                                  • Six classes are divided into subgroups according to their substrate or source i.e. the type of reaction they catalyse                               
                                  • Each enzyme IDed by individual 4 digit number        I.U.B. Commission on Enzymes - established the systematic classification on enzymes           Catalase 4 digit classification code - E.C.          
                                  1. mnemonic: TO HILL
                                    1. transferase
                                      1. oxoreductase
                                        1. hydrolyase
                                          1. isomerase
                                            1. ligase
                                              1. lyases
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