Th1L03 Amino acids


Medicine Y1 (Theme 1 | Cells and organelles) Mind Map on Th1L03 Amino acids, created by Emma Allde on 15/08/2016.
Emma Allde
Mind Map by Emma Allde, updated more than 1 year ago
Emma Allde
Created by Emma Allde over 7 years ago

Resource summary

Th1L03 Amino acids
  1. Building block of proteins
    1. Structure
      1. Central carbon atom (alpha-carbon) linked to an amino group, a carboxylic group, a hydrogen atom and a R group (variable group)
        1. Chiral
          1. Can exist in two mirror-image forms
            1. L and D isomers
              1. L isomer has amino group on left side
                1. Only L amino groups are constituents of proteins probably because are more soluble
                2. D isomer has amino group on right side
          2. Dipolar ions or zwitterions
            1. Amino acids at neutral pH
              1. Amino group is protonated (-NH3+)
                1. Carboxyl group (-COO-) is deprotonated
                  1. Ionisation sates of an amino acid depends on pH
                  2. In acidic solution
                    1. amino acid group(-NH3+)
                      1. carboxyl group (-COO-) is deprotonated
                      2. In basic solution
                        1. carboxyl group tends to be the first group to give up its proton as it has a low pKa (approx . 2)
                          1. The dipolar form persists until pH = 9 where the protonated amino group loses a proton
                          2. Functional groups
                            1. include alcohols, thios, thioesters, carboxylic acids, carboxamides and various basic groups
                              1. Most are chemically reactive and account for protein function
                                1. Size, shape, charge, hydrogen bonding capacity, hydrophobic character, chemical reactivity
                                  1. Reactive properties of functional groups are essential to enzymes
                                    1. Proteins can interact with one another and with their biological macromolecules which have more complex functions
                                  2. Proteins differ in their rigidity/ flexibility and this plays a role into function (think cytoskeleton vs. connective tissue)
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