Th03L03 Carbohydrates


Medicine Y1 (Theme 1 | Cells and organelles) Mind Map on Th03L03 Carbohydrates, created by Emma Allde on 15/08/2016.
Emma Allde
Mind Map by Emma Allde, updated more than 1 year ago
Emma Allde
Created by Emma Allde over 7 years ago

Resource summary

Th03L03 Carbohydrates
  1. Properties
    1. Monosaccharides: sugars
      1. Water-soluble
        1. General formula: (CH20)n
          1. Usually n=3, 4, 5 or 6
            1. Triose (n=3) e.g. glyceraldehyde, dihydroxyacetone
              1. Pentose (n=5
                1. 2-deoxyribose, ribose
                2. Hexoses (n=6)
                  1. Glucose, fructose
            2. Structure
              1. Carbonyl group (C=0)
                1. Located in the middle of the ketose molecule and end of the aldose molecule
                2. Carbon 1 = at the end closest to the carbonyl group
                  1. Anomeric carbon - carbon attached to the original carbonyl group in cyclic form
                    1. Isomers
                      1. Aldose and ketone
                        1. Aldose
                          1. contains the aldehyde groups (-CH=O)
                            1. Adloses with three or more carbon isomers exhibit stereoisomerism
                              1. same molecule that differs in dimensional orientations of their atoms in space affecting properties of the molecule
                            2. Ketone
                              1. contains the fructose groups
                            3. Different molecules with same chemical formula
                              1. Galactose, mannose and glucose
                              2. D vs. L form
                                1. Isomeric forms
                                  1. D-sugar is most common biologically
                                  2. Ring formation
                                    1. In aqueous solution, the aldehyde or ketone group tend to react with a hydroxyl group of the same molecule, closing the molecule into a ring structure
                                    2. Alpha and beta forms
                                      1. Hydroxyl group (-OH) of the carbon that carriers the aldehyde or ketone group can rapidly change from one position to another
                                        1. Alpha form: hydroxyl group is facing up
                                          1. Beta form: hydroxyl group is facing down
                                        2. Biological functions
                                          1. Sugars function in short-term fuel for muscle, brain kidney, etc.
                                            1. Function as energy forces or energy storage in the form of glucose and glycogen respectively
                                              1. Digestion of alpha-amylase results in the random hydrolysis of internal alpha 1>4 linkages in the glycogen molecule
                                                1. Pancreatic alpha-amylase mixture of mono and disaccharides continues hydrolysis of internal linkages
                                                  1. Maltase produces glucose and can be absorbed into intestinal mucosal cells
                                                    1. In the liver, glucose phosphorylase hydrolyses terminal alpha (1>4) to produce glucose-1- phosphate
                                                    2. Structurally part of cell walls in the bacteria (peptidoglycan)
                                                      1. Proteins on the cell surface are often glycosylated (e.g. ABO blood groups and IgG)
                                                      2. Pathology
                                                        1. Lactose intolerance


                                                          • Normally lactose is broken down into galactose and glucose              When lactose remains undigested, it can be digested by bacteria in the large intestine producing excess CO2 and other metabolites > bloating and diarrhoea   
                                                        2. Disaccharides
                                                          1. Sucrose
                                                            1. glucose + fructose
                                                            2. Maltose
                                                              1. glucose + glucose
                                                              2. Galactose
                                                                1. glucose + galactose
                                                              3. Polysaccharides
                                                                1. Glycogen (branched glucose polymer)
                                                                  1. Stored form
                                                                    1. Linear glucose polymer (alpha 1>4)
                                                                      1. Alpha (1>6) branches
                                                                      2. Amylose (linear glucose polymer)
                                                                        1. Glycosidic bond formation
                                                                          1. Gycosyltransferase via a dehydration (condensation) reaction
                                                                        2. Monosaccharide
                                                                          1. Reducing form
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