Respiratory Mechanics


Mind Map on Respiratory Mechanics, created by itharra on 23/05/2015.
Mind Map by itharra, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Susy Sanchez
Created by Susy Sanchez over 8 years ago
Copied by itharra over 8 years ago

Resource summary

Respiratory Mechanics
  1. Pulmonary Ventilation
    1. Inspiration & Expiration
      1. Volume change of thoracic cavity and lungs
        1. Boyle's Law P~1/V
      2. Quiet Breathing
        1. Diaphragm: Increase thoracic volume
          1. External Intercostal: raise ribs and increase thoracic volume
            1. Expiration: passive recoil (elastin)
            2. Deep Breathing
              1. Inhalation
                1. Scalene, Sternocleidomastoid
                  1. Raise ribs and increase thoracic volume
                  2. Expiration
                    1. Internal intercostal & abdominals
                  3. What controls breathing factors
                    1. Medulla Respiration Centers
                      1. Brainstem
                        1. Starts at the Medulla Oblongata (NTS)
                          1. Basic breathing rhythm
                            1. if medulla destroyed you will have trouble breathing
                            2. Pons Respiratory Centers
                              1. Influence breathing rhythm
                                1. Two respiratory centers
                                  1. Apneustic Center
                                    1. Stimulates inspiratory neurons of the medulla
                                      1. Makes breathing increases
                                      2. Pneumotaxic Center
                                        1. Antagonizes apneustic center
                                          1. Reduction of Breathing
                                    2. Peripheral and Central Chemoreceptors
                                      1. Influenced breathing rhythm (rate and depth)
                                        1. Sensitive to blood CO2, O2 and pH
                                          1. Location
                                            1. Medulla Oblongata CENTRAL
                                              1. Aortic and carotid bodies (PERIPHERAL)
                                          2. Phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm
                                            1. Intercostal nerves innervates the intercostal muscles
                                              1. Chemoreceptors Mechanism
                                                1. Central Chemoreceptors
                                                  1. Greatest effect on Ventilation
                                                    1. BBB impermeable to H+ bond enters CSF (lowest pH)
                                                      1. Formation of H2CO3 by carbonic anhydrase
                                                        1. H+ activates central chemoreceptors
                                                        2. Peripheral Chemoreceptors
                                                          1. Respond to blood pH levels
                                                          2. Most sensitive to PCO2 & pH
                                                            1. PCO2 influence blood pH
                                                            2. Hyperventilation
                                                              1. Low CO2 (HYPOCAPNIA)
                                                              2. Hypoventilation
                                                                1. Low CO2 (HYPERCAPNIA)
                                                                2. Adjusted to maintaIn 40mmHg PCO2
                                                                3. Effects of blood PO2 on Ventilation
                                                                  1. low blood PO2 (Hypoxamia) has little affect on ventilation
                                                                    1. Blood PO2 ust decrease from 100 mmHg to 50 mmHg to influence ventilation
                                                                  2. Cerebral Cortex
                                                                    1. Voluntary override
                                                                      1. Breath hold
                                                                        1. Panting
                                                                          1. Sighing
                                                                            1. Emotions
                                                                    2. Other Ventilation Regulatory Mechanisms
                                                                      1. Proprioreceptors
                                                                        1. Temperature and pain receptors
                                                                          1. Irritant receptors
                                                                            1. Rapidly adapting respond to smoke smog and particulates
                                                                              1. Causes cough sneezing bronchoconstriction
                                                                        2. Hering-Stretch receptors activated during inspiration
                                                                          1. Located in smooth muscle of airways
                                                                            1. Inhibits respiratory centers to prevent overinflation of lungs
                                                                        3. Assessing Pulmonary function
                                                                          1. Spirometry
                                                                            1. Tidal volume amount of air expired/breath
                                                                              1. Tidal capacity: amount of air forcefully exhaled after a maximum inhalation
                                                                                1. TV+IRV+ERV
                                                                                  1. Tv=tidal volume
                                                                                    1. Volume of gas inspired or expired in a unforced respiratory cycle
                                                                                    2. IRV=Inspiration Reserve Volume
                                                                                      1. Maximum volume of gas that can be inspired during forced breathing in addition
                                                                                      2. ERV= Expiration reserve volume
                                                                                        1. Maximum volume of gas that can be expired during forced breathing in addition
                                                                                2. Terms
                                                                                  1. ANATOMICAL DEAD SPACE
                                                                                    1. air in conducting Zone
                                                                                    2. FORCED EXPIRATORY VOLUME )FEV1)
                                                                                      1. Air exhaled in forced breath in 1 second
                                                                                      2. FORCED VITAL CAPACITY
                                                                                        1. Total amount of air exhaled in FEV test
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