GCSE Chemistry C1.1 - Fundamental Ideas in Chemistry

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C1.1 of second C1-C3, Chemistry GCSE
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GCSE Chemistry C1.1 - Fundamental Ideas in Chemistry
  1. Subatomic Particles
    1. Atomic Particle / Relative Charge
      1. Proton
        1. Neutron
          1. Electron
        2. +1
          1. 0
            1. -1
        3. Atomic & Mass Numbers
          1. The find out the number of neutrons an atom contains = mass number - atomic number
            1. Atomic number - The amount of protons OR Electrons an atom contains
              1. Mass Number - The TOTAL amount of protons AND neutrons an atom contains - Nom of protons+Nom of neutrons
          2. Electronic configuration
            1. The first shell always contains a number of 2 electrons, the rest contains 8.
              1. For an atom that contains 6 electrons, their electronic configuration would be written as [2,6]
          3. Alkali Metals (group 1)
            1. Lithium 2,1
              1. Sodium 2,8,1
                1. Potassium 2,8,8,1
              2. All alkali metals react violently when added to water they also always produce hydrogen gas and a metal hyrdoxide e.g.) Potassium+water-->potassium hydroxide+hydrogen
                1. When the alklai metals react with oxygen they always produce a metal oxide e.g) sodium+oxygen-->sodium oxide
              3. Halogens (group 7)
                1. Flourine 2,7
                  1. Chlorine 2,8,7
                  2. The halogen atoms and the alkali metals with react together to form an ionic compound in which these are called halide ions and have a single negative charge.
                    1. Noble Gases (Group 0)
                      1. Helium 2
                        1. Neon 2,8
                          1. Argon 2,8,8
                        2. Noble gases are unreactive as they all have a full outer shell.
                        3. Mixtures and Compounds
                          1. A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds that are not chemically joined, the properties of the substances remain unchanged and specific to each substance.
                            1. A compound is a substance contains two or more elements are chemically joined together.
                              1. Non metal + Non metal = Covalent bonding
                                1. Sharing of electrons
                                2. Non metal + metal = Ionic bonding
                                  1. gaining/losing electrons
                                3. Either way of bonding, covalent or ionic results in all outer shells being full.
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