Unit 1.1 Systems Architecture


Unit 1.1 System Architecture Mind Map
Mathew Wheatley
Mind Map by Mathew Wheatley, updated more than 1 year ago
Mathew Wheatley
Created by Mathew Wheatley almost 6 years ago

Resource summary

Unit 1.1 Systems Architecture
  1. Computer Components
    1. CPU
      1. Main component within a computer
        1. Location of the fetch-decode-execute cycle
        2. MAR
          1. Memory Address Register
            1. Contains the address of the instruction next to be or previously executed
            2. MDR
              1. Memory Data Register
                1. Also known as the MBR (Memory Buffer Register)
                  1. Contains the data to be stored in the computer's storage
                  2. CIR
                    1. Current Instruction Register
                      1. Part of the CPU
                        1. Holds the instruction currently being executed
                        2. ALU
                          1. Arithmetic Logic Unit
                            1. A combinational, digital, electronic circuit
                              1. Performs arithmetic operations on integer binary numbers
                              2. CU
                                1. Control Unit
                                  1. Directs the operation of the processor
                                    1. Part of the CPU
                                    2. PC
                                      1. Program Counter
                                        1. Register in the CPU
                                          1. As instructions are fetched, its count increases respectivelly
                                            1. Contains the address of the instruction currently being executed
                                            2. Accumulator
                                              1. In the CPU
                                                1. Stores intermediate arithmetic and logic results
                                              2. RAM + ROM
                                                1. See Unit 1.2 Mind Map
                                                2. Computational Speeds
                                                  1. Computer speeds are measured in hertz (Hz)
                                                    1. 1 GHz can perform 1 billion instructions per second
                                                      1. Computer speeds can be affected by Cores
                                                        1. A dual-core processor may be able to perform up to twice the amount of instructions per second
                                                        2. Cache
                                                          1. Smallest but fastest form of memory
                                                            1. Can speed up a computer
                                                              1. Contains frequently used instructions (due to close proximity to CPU)
                                                              2. Secondary Storage
                                                                1. An external device containing extra storage space for a computer
                                                                  1. Includes Memory Sticks, CD/DVDs, External Hard Drives and SD Cards
                                                                  2. Embedded Systems
                                                                    1. Made up of hardware and software
                                                                      1. Built into another device
                                                                        1. They do not rely upon an OS
                                                                          1. Used to provide specific, pre-defined functions
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