Chemistry Facts

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A Levels Chemistry Mind Map on Chemistry Facts, created by beth2384 on 31/05/2013.
beth2384
Mind Map by beth2384, updated more than 1 year ago
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Created by beth2384 over 10 years ago
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Resource summary

Chemistry Facts
  1. 1 Principles of Chemistry
    1. mass of particles
      1. proton= 1
        1. neutron= 1
          1. electron= 1/1836
            1. charge of particles
              1. neutron= 0
                1. proton= +1
                  1. electron= -1
                2. isotopes
                  1. same number of protons, different number of electrons
                  2. Electrolysis
                    1. molten lead bromide
                      1. cathode -
                        1. Pb²⁺ + 2e⁻ → Pb
                        2. anode +
                          1. 2Br⁻ → Br₂ + 2e⁻
                        3. of aqueous solutions
                          1. Sulphuric acid
                            1. cathode -
                              1. 2H⁺ + 2e⁻ → H₂
                              2. anode +
                                1. 4OH⁻ → O₂ + 2H₂O + 4e⁻
                              3. Sodium Chloride
                                1. cathode -
                                  1. 2H⁺ + 2e⁻ → H₂
                                  2. anode +
                                    1. 2Cl⁻ → Cl₂ + 2e⁻
                                  3. Copper (ii) sulphate
                                    1. cathode -
                                      1. Cu²⁺ + 2e⁻ → Cu
                                      2. anode +
                                        1. 4OH⁻ → O₂ + 2H₂O + 4e⁻
                                      3. cathode- hydrogen unless metal ion is less reactive
                                        1. anode- hydroxide unless halide ions present
                                      4. Electrolysis- calculating masses
                                        1. charge= current x time
                                          1. 96,000 Coulombs= 1 faraday = one mole of electrons
                                        2. 2 Chemistry of the Elements
                                          1. Group 1
                                            1. more reactive down the group
                                              1. metal + water → metalhydroxide hydrogen
                                              2. Group 7
                                                1. The Halogens
                                                  1. Chlorine
                                                    1. green gas
                                                      1. colourless in water
                                                    2. Bromine
                                                      1. red-brown liquid
                                                        1. orange in water
                                                      2. Iodine
                                                        1. dark grey solid
                                                          1. brown in water
                                                        2. more reactive up the group
                                                          1. Hydrogen chloride gas dissociates in water but not in methylbenzene
                                                            1. halogens displace eachother
                                                            2. reactions of metals
                                                              1. metal + acid → salt + hydrogen
                                                                1. MASH
                                                              2. reactivity series
                                                                1. Potassium
                                                                  1. Sodium
                                                                    1. Lithium
                                                                      1. Calcium
                                                                        1. Magnesium
                                                                          1. Aluminium
                                                                            1. (Carbon)
                                                                              1. Zinc
                                                                                1. Iron
                                                                                  1. (Hydrogen)
                                                                                    1. Copper
                                                                                      1. Silver
                                                                                        1. Gold
                                                                                          1. Goats
                                                                                          2. Some
                                                                                          3. Coz of
                                                                                          4. Hiding
                                                                                          5. Into
                                                                                          6. Zebras
                                                                                          7. Counting
                                                                                          8. About
                                                                                          9. Made
                                                                                          10. Calculation
                                                                                          11. Little
                                                                                          12. Simple
                                                                                          13. Perfectly
                                                                                        2. Iron
                                                                                          1. iron + oxygen + water → hydrate iron (iii) oxide (rust)
                                                                                          2. TESTS- see tests sheet
                                                                                            1. Oxygen in reactions
                                                                                              1. making O₂ in the labs
                                                                                                1. decomposition of Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)
                                                                                                  1. manganese (iv) oxide catalyst
                                                                                                    1. 2H₂O₂ → 2H₂O + O₂
                                                                                                  2. Burning with oxygen
                                                                                                    1. Magnesium
                                                                                                      1. white flame
                                                                                                        1. magnesium oxide forms
                                                                                                          1. alkaline when dissolved in water
                                                                                                        2. Carbon
                                                                                                          1. orange yellow flame
                                                                                                            1. carbon dioxide forms
                                                                                                              1. slightly acidic when dissolved in water
                                                                                                            2. Sulphur
                                                                                                              1. pale blue flame
                                                                                                                1. sulphur dioxide forms
                                                                                                                  1. acidic when dissolved in water
                                                                                                            3. making CO₂ in the lab
                                                                                                              1. HCl + CaCO₃ → CaCl₂ + H₂O +CO₂
                                                                                                                1. (hydrochloric acid and limestone)
                                                                                                                2. thermal decomposition of metal carbonates
                                                                                                                  1. e.g. copper (ii) carbonate
                                                                                                                    1. green copper (ii) carbonate →black copper (ii) oxide
                                                                                                                  2. used in fizzy drinks and fire extinguishers
                                                                                                                3. 3 Organic Chemistry
                                                                                                                  1. alkanes
                                                                                                                    1. order...
                                                                                                                      1. methane
                                                                                                                        1. CH₄
                                                                                                                          1. ethane
                                                                                                                            1. propane
                                                                                                                              1. butane
                                                                                                                                1. pentane
                                                                                                                                  1. C₅H₁₂
                                                                                                                                  2. C₄H₁₀
                                                                                                                                  3. C₃H₈
                                                                                                                                  4. C₂H₆
                                                                                                                              2. CₓH₂ₓ₊₂
                                                                                                                                1. complete combustion
                                                                                                                                  1. alkane + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+energy)
                                                                                                                                  2. incomplete combustion
                                                                                                                                    1. alkane + oxygen → carbon + carbon monoixde + water (+energy)
                                                                                                                                    2. react with halogens to make haloalkanes
                                                                                                                                      1. UV needed
                                                                                                                                        1. alkane + 'bromine' → 'bromo'methane +hydrogen'bromide'
                                                                                                                                      2. alkenes
                                                                                                                                        1. order...
                                                                                                                                          1. ethene
                                                                                                                                            1. propene
                                                                                                                                              1. butene
                                                                                                                                                1. C₄H₈
                                                                                                                                                2. C₃H₆
                                                                                                                                                3. C₂H₄
                                                                                                                                              2. CₓH₂ₓ
                                                                                                                                                1. react with halogens to make haloalkanes
                                                                                                                                                  1. shake with bromine water, orange → colourless (test for alkenes)
                                                                                                                                                    1. ethene + 'bromine' → di'bromo'ethane
                                                                                                                                                      1. 'di' because there are two bromine atoms
                                                                                                                                                  2. Ethanol production
                                                                                                                                                    1. Fermentation
                                                                                                                                                      1. impure
                                                                                                                                                        1. slow
                                                                                                                                                          1. batch
                                                                                                                                                            1. sugar= a renewable resource
                                                                                                                                                            2. steam + ethene
                                                                                                                                                              1. conditions
                                                                                                                                                                1. phosphoric acid
                                                                                                                                                                  1. 300°C
                                                                                                                                                                    1. 60-70atmospheres
                                                                                                                                                                    2. pure
                                                                                                                                                                      1. fast
                                                                                                                                                                        1. continuous
                                                                                                                                                                          1. C₂H₄ + H₂O → C₂H₅OH
                                                                                                                                                                            1. (reversible)
                                                                                                                                                                            2. ethene= a nonrenewable resource
                                                                                                                                                                            3. dehydrating ethanol
                                                                                                                                                                              1. remove water
                                                                                                                                                                                1. hot catalyst of Al₂O₃ (aluminium oxide)
                                                                                                                                                                            4. 4 Physical Chemistry
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                1. phenolphthalein
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. acids- colourless
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. alkalis- bright pink
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. methyl orange
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. acids- yellow
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. alkalis- red
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. litmus
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. acids- red
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. neutral- purple
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. alkalis- blue
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. reactions of acids
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. acid + metal oxide → salt + water
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. acid + metal carbonate → salt + water + carbon dioxide
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. energy transfer
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. EXOTHERMIC
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. heat given out
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. temp increase
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. bonds broken
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. energy loss
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. ENDOTHERMIC
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. bonds formed
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. heat taken in
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. temp decrease
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. energy gain
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. 5 Chemistry in Industry
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Extracting Aluminium
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Cryolite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. 900 °C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. aluminium uses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. aircraft bodies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. property: low density
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. electrolysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. Extracting Iron
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. C + O₂ → CO₂
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. CO₂ + C → 2CO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. 3CO + Fe₂O₃ → 3CO₂ + 2Fe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. temp raised to 1500°C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. iron is molten and dense when formed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. removing impuritites
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. main impurity is sand (silicon dioxide)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. limestone removes it
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. CaCO₃ → CaO + CO₂
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. CaO + SiO₂ → CaSiO₃
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. molten slag forms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. cooled solid slag used for road-building and fertilisers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. limestone decomposed by heat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. iron uses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. ornamental gates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. property: malleable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. blast furnace
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. fractional distillation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. fractions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. bitumen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Fuel Oil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Diesel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Kerosene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Naptha
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. 'Chemical feedstock'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Gasoline
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. refinery gases
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. uses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. road surfacing, asphalt for roofs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. domestic central heating, fuel for big ships
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. diesel engined cars, lorries, trains
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. jet engines, pain solvents
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. making plastics, dyes, drugs, explosives, paints
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. fuel for cars
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. bottled gas, making glass, pottery
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. pollutants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. acid rain is caused by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Cracking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. conditions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. catalyst: silica or alumina
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. temp: 600-700°C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. polymerisation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. uses of polymers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. poly(ethene)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. plastic bags
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. poly(propene)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. kettles, food containers, carpets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. poly(chloroethene)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. insulating electrical cables, clothes, pipes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. The Haber Process
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. making Ammonia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Uses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. making nitric acid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. making ammonium nitrate fertilisers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. source of reactants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. nitrogen from air
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. hydrogen from natural gases
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. conditions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. 450°C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. 200atmospheres
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. iron catalyst
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. The Contact Process
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. making sulphuric acid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. S + O₂ → SO₂
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. 2SO₂ + O₂<->2SO₃
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. SO₃+ H₂SO₄ → H₂S₂O₇
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. H₂S₂O₇ + H₂O → 2H₂SO₄
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. OLEUM is diluted forming concentrated sulphuric acid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form liquid OLEUM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. reversable reaction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. conditions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. 2atmospheres
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. 450°C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. vanadium (V) oxide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. 99% yield
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. happens quickly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. uses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. (phosphate) fertilisers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. detergents (cleaning)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. makes a white pigment used in paint
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. electrolysis of brine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. products and their uses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Chlorine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. making bleach and HCl
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. sterilising water supplies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Hydrogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Haber Process
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. oil → fats making margarine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Sodium hydroxide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. used to make soap, bleach and paper pulp
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. concentrated brine= sodium chloride solution
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