Geography Hard Engineering and Soft Engineering


GCSE Geography (Water on the Land) Mind Map on Geography Hard Engineering and Soft Engineering, created by Serena Norman Th on 28/03/2016.
Serena Norman Th
Mind Map by Serena Norman Th, updated more than 1 year ago
Serena Norman Th
Created by Serena Norman Th about 8 years ago

Resource summary

Geography Hard Engineering and Soft Engineering
  1. Dams and Reservoirs
    1. Benefits
      1. Reservoirs store water which reduces the risk of flooding.
        1. The water in the reservoir is sued as drinking water and can be used to generate HEP.
        2. Costs
          1. Dams are very expensive to build.
            1. Creating a reservoir can flood existing settlements.
              1. Eroded material is deposited in the reservoir and not along the rivers natural course.
                1. So farmland downstream can be less fertile.
            2. Channel Straightening
              1. Benefits
                1. Water moves out of the area quicker as it doesn't travel as far- reducing the risk of flooding.
                2. Costs
                  1. Flooding may happen downstream of the straightened channel instead as flood water is carried there faster.
                    1. There is more erosion downstream as that is where the water is flooding fastest
                  2. Soft Engineering - schemes set up using the knowledge of the river and its processes to reduce the effects of flooding
                    1. Flood Warnings
                      1. costs
                        1. Don't stop a flood from happening
                          1. Some people might not have access to the warnings
                          2. benefits
                            1. Impacts of flooding reduced
                              1. People have time to move possessions upstairs, put sandbags in position, evacuate, etc
                          3. Preparation
                            1. costs
                              1. Doesn't guarantee safety from a flood
                                1. Could give people a false sense of security.
                                  1. Modifying homes and businesses is expensive.
                                  2. benefits
                                    1. Impact of flooding is reduced as buildings as buildings less damaged
                                      1. People are less likely to worry about the threats of floods if they are preared.
                                    2. Flood plain zoning
                                      1. costs
                                        1. benefits
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