Acids, Bases and salts


IGCSE Chemistry (5 Acids and Bases) Flowchart on Acids, Bases and salts, created by Will Manuel on 20/02/2017.
Will Manuel
Flowchart by Will Manuel , updated more than 1 year ago
Will Manuel
Created by Will Manuel almost 7 years ago

Resource summary

Flowchart nodes

  • Acids Bases and Salts
  • Acids identified by the presence H+ ions
  • Metal carbonates
  • BasesIdentified by presence of OH- ions 
  • Making salts 
  • Metal oxides are bases 
  • soluble hydroxides are alkalies
  • Acid + Base --> salt
  • Neutralisation reaction H+ + OH- -> H2O
  • Hydrochloic acid -> chlorideSulphuric Acid -> sulphate Nitric acid -> nitrate
  • Titration
  • The volumes of acid and alkali solutions that react with each other can be measure by titration using a suitable indicator
  • If the concentration of one of the reactants is known, the results of the titration can be used to find the concentration of the other reactant.
  • calculating chemical quantities in titrations involving concentrations
  • step 1 - convert to dm3e.g.  25cm3 of HCL = 25/1000 = 0.025 dm3step 2 - Determine the number of moles.Moles = conc. x volumestep 3 - work out the number of moles of acid using the balanced equation.step 4 - conc = number of moles / volumeanswer = mol/dm3
  • Soluble salts can be made from acids reacting with them:
  • metals - not all metals are suitable; some are too reactive and some not enough.
  • Insoluble bases - the base is added to the acid until no more will react and the excess solid is filtered off.
  • Alkalis - an indicator can be used to show when the acid and alkali have completely reacted to produce a salt solution. 
  • salt solutions can be crystallised to produce solid salts.
  • preparing a insoluble salt. Two soluble metal salts react with each other to form one soluble salt and one insoluble salt.displacement.precipitate recovered by filtration
  • The carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and lithium decompose on heating (thermal decomposition) in a similar way.
  • Metal carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water.
  • Limestone, calcium carbonate CaCO3, can be used as a building material. or powered to use to control the acidity of the soil.
  • Acid + metal oxide --> salt + wateracid + metal hydroxide -> salt + waterAcid + metal carbonate -> salt + water + CO2Acid + Metal --> salt +hydrogen
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