The volumes of acid and alkali solutions that react with each other can be measure by titration using a suitable indicator
If the concentration of one of the reactants is known, the results of the titration can be used to find the concentration of the other reactant.
calculating chemical quantities in titrations involving concentrations
step 1 - convert to dm3e.g. 25cm3 of HCL = 25/1000 = 0.025 dm3step 2 - Determine the number of moles.Moles = conc. x volumestep 3 - work out the number of moles of acid using the balanced equation.step 4 - conc = number of moles / volumeanswer = mol/dm3
Soluble salts can be made from acids reacting with them:
metals - not all metals are suitable; some are too reactive and some not enough.
Insoluble bases - the base is added to the acid until no more will react and the excess solid is filtered off.
Alkalis - an indicator can be used to show when the acid and alkali have completely reacted to produce a salt solution.
salt solutions can be crystallised to produce solid salts.
preparing a insoluble salt. Two soluble metal salts react with each other to form one soluble salt and one insoluble salt.displacement.precipitate recovered by filtration
The carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and lithium decompose on heating (thermal decomposition) in a similar way.
Metal carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water.
Limestone, calcium carbonate CaCO3, can be used as a building material. or powered to use to control the acidity of the soil.
Acid + metal oxide --> salt + wateracid + metal hydroxide -> salt + waterAcid + metal carbonate -> salt + water + CO2Acid + Metal --> salt +hydrogen