Y11 SACE Biology Ecology Flash Cards


Y11 SACE Biology Ecology Flash Cards
Ben Goetze
Flashcards by Ben Goetze, updated more than 1 year ago
Ben Goetze
Created by Ben Goetze almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Community A group of organisms of different species (populations) that interact in one area
Species Organisms that can interbreed under natural conditions to produce fertile offspring
Population A group of organisms of the same species living in one place/area
Ecosystem Interactions between biotic and abiotic components of the environment
Saprotroph Secrete enzymes and break down matter outside their body. Nutrients are then absorbed. Eg. Fungi, Bacteria
Detrivore Eat the matter which is digested internally. Nutrients are then excreted into the soil. Eg. Earthworms, Dung Beetles
Food Web (what things must you consider when making them?) -Arrows -Producers at bottom -Try to arrange in Trophic Levels
Photosynthesis (Def. + Form.) Producers convert light energy into chemical energy 6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Carb. Diox. + Wat. --> Gluc. + Ox.
Respiration (Def. + Form.) The process which converts glucose into energy C6H12O6 + 6O2-->6CO2 + 6H2O +E
Biotic factors affecting survival Living actors e.g. predators, disease, competition, food availability
Abiotic factors affecting survival Non-living factors e.g. rocks, soil, pH, temp, weather, climate, water availability
food chain (percentage passed through) 1% into producer, 10% afterward. 99% lost through reflection and radiation (producer) 90% lost as heat, waste & movement
Biomass Pyramid Biomass must be the largest at the producer level, or the system is not sustainable. (Must be pyramid shaped)
Biomass the mass of dry biological material in a population or organism. Remove the water and what is left is biomass.
Pyramid of Numbers Pyramid of numbers can have more varied shapes without affecting the food chain.
Carbon cycle -The Layer in the atmosphere provides insulation (greenhouse effect) -Human activities increased Greenhouse effect (burning of fossil fuels, deforestation)
Carbon Cycle (Diagram)
Natality Birth Rate
Mortality Death Rate
Immigration Moving In
Emigration Moving out
Population change=? (Natality-Mortality)+(Immigration - Emigration)
4 phases of population growth 1. Lag Phase (slow g.r, low fe.,low comp.) 2. Exponential Phase (good fe., v.fast g.r., low comp.) 3.Transitional Phase (g.r. slows, comp incr., dis. incr.) 4. Plateau Phase (Popn stable(at K),Env.R.F. limit further growth)
Environmental Resistance Factor Decrease growth of a population by increasing mortality and emigration. E.g. Predators, food av, competition, disease, water av., shelter, light/soil (plants)
Quadrat Method Best for non/slow moving organisms
Lincoln Index Used to sample moving populations of organisms (tag, release, count)
Trophic Levels Producer - 1st 1st order consumer - 2nd trophic level (herbivore) 2nd order consumer - 3rd trophic level (carnivore) 3rd order consumer - 4th trophic level (predator)
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