Personality Chapter 13


Macewan University Psychology 233 Personality Psychology : Domains of knowledge about human nature 5th edition R.J. Larsen, D.M Buss
Flashcards by shattering.illus, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by shattering.illus over 10 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
emotions 1. distinct subjective feelings, affects 2. accompanies bodily changes: heart rate, muscle tension, blood chemistry, facial/ bodily expression 3. action tendencies: increase certain Bhav
functional analysis why emotions & expression whether increase fitness of individuals
emotional states transitory, have a specific cause that typically originates outside person
emotional trait a pattern of emotional reactions that a person consistently experiences across a variety of life situations
categorical approach primary emotions describing hundreds of emotions, massive amounts of trait adjectives that cannot reduced in
Paul Ekmans list of emotions disgust, joy, sadness, surprise, fear, anger
Idzard believes emotions are based on motivational properties: fear
dimensional approach gather data by having subjects rate themselves on emotions, using statistics to ID basis dimensional underlying
4 dimensions of emotions: defines how ppl experience and think about their emotions: 1. pleasant 2. unpleasant 3. high activation 4. low activation
content specific kind of emotion that a person experience
style way in w/h an emotion is experienced
eudaimonia creation of life of meaning and purpose, as the route to happiness
happiness examine how researchers measure it through questionnaires: purpose to life, ratio of positive emotions
happiness has to parts 1. satisfaction 2. hedonic balance
positive illusion viewing self as having positive, inflated characteristics as good, able desirable person appearing to contribute to emotional well-being
reciprocal causality situation w/ some outcome might be more complex, idea that causality can flow in both directions
Gender differences in happiness 1. women more likely to be diagnosed w/ depression 2. men more likely to be alcoholics 3. equal proportions of sadness and happiness
ethnic diff. in happiness 1. poor countries have less life satisfaction and happiness 2. lower political freedom and rights = decrease 3. population density/ homogeneity does not make a diff.
money and happiness money does not make people happier
Costa, McCrae demographic, gender, age, ethnicity, income account for ... 10-15 % of variation in happiness
personality happiness = high extroversion, outgoing, social, emotionally stable, low neuroticism
Myers and Diener research into happiness absence of health or wealth can bring misery, but presence is no guarantee tat happiness will follow
Costa & McCrae extraversion: predicts positive emotions, neuroticism: predicts negative emotions
mood induction larsen emotional manipulation through listening to guided images or viewing photos
negative mood induction high neuroticism
positive mood induction high extraversion: react more to money, reward, surrounding situations
Neuroticism involves increased anxiety, depression, anger
Hans Eysenck, neuroticism overreact to unpleasant events, frustrations, & problems
Eysenck limbic system theory brain becomes to active, flight/ fight, 1. stability of neuroticism 2. can be found in many tests 3. high heritability
anterior cingulate center of brain, evolution of NS, higher amounts of brain tissue in certain parts of brain
increased activity in the right medial prefrontal cortex inhibits emotional responses
information processing & neuroticism 1. higher recall of negative/ unpleasant words 2. selective memory 3. link between illness and negative memories/ emotions 4. more physical symptoms 5. lower immune S. 6. higher attention to threats, high BIS
stroop effect increased time it takes to name the color when a word is written in a different color then the name, giving the word less meaning, high-N will take more time and notice the negative word
depression 20% of US have at some point in life traitlike dimension
diathesis-stress model preexisting vulnerability, diathesis present in ppl who later become depressed: career failure, negative life event triggers depression
cognitive schema way of seeing the world, way of processing information from the world.
cognitive triad information from self, world, future: leads to overgeneralizing
cognitive distortions Beck's arbitrary inferences, personalizing, catastrophizing
Aaron Beck self-fulfilling prophecy person who believes they are a total failure also acts like one therefor creating condition
neurotransmitter theory of depression emotional problem may be result of neuroTs imbalance at synapses of NS: NE, Sero, DOPA
antidepressants prozac, zoloft, paxil (inhibit sero), & tofranil (sero+ NE balance)
hostility tendency to repsond to everyday frustrations w/ anger & aggression, irritability, resentment by acting: rude, critical, antagonistic, uncooperative manner
2 scientific questioning of hostility: 1) how and why became hostile 2) examine consequences
3 Consequences of hostility 1) heart disease Type A personality 2) violent outbreak 3) prison rates
reasons why hostile 1) decreased prefrontal activity 2) damage from abuse, accidents, drugs lowering self-control 3) high brain abnormalities 4) damage temporal lobe 5) high BIS, low BAS
affect intensity description of persons who are either high/ low on this dimension
high affective intensity ppl who experience intense emotions
low affect intensity typically experience emotions mildly with gradual fluctuations and minor reactions, calm and stable
high affect intensity leads to higher sickness, mood fluctations
affect intensity measure: AIM measures mood and emotion
mood variability frequent fluctuations of emotions over lifetime
Larsen, diener personality affective intensity higher in ppl with high sociability, and arousability, more vigor
Show full summary Hide full summary


Psychological Statistics
Charlotte Joseph
General ANOVA
Charlotte Joseph
The Tet Offensive
Nerves Hormones and Target Tissue
Alannah Kelly
Antenatal Care in Pregnancy
Complex Exam - Overall Summery
Meaning of work
Liz Higgins
Epistemic Modality in ME
Criminology Chapter 9