General LSAT Strategy

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Information gathered from LSAT studying that does not fit into the tutorials and texts provided for homework.
csokolowski
Flashcards by csokolowski, updated more than 1 year ago
csokolowski
Created by csokolowski over 10 years ago
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Kaplan's Core 4 (skills) 1. Reading strategically 2. Analyzing Arguments 3. Understanding Formal Logic 4. Making Deductions
What is Reading Strategically? 1. Reading for purpose. 2. Reading for structure, NOT details. 3. Understanding the logic in the sequence of ideas.
What are the (4) components to identify while Reading Strategically? 1. Topic 2. Scope- what about the topic is the author interested in? 3. Purpose- Why the author wrote what they did- argue, explain etc. 4. Main Idea- Summary of the authors opinions. State the whole passage in one sentence.
Detail road map symbolism for "Reading Strategically" 1. Circle- structural words, words leading into a conclusion etc. 2. Au. Neg(-)- Author opposes view 3. Au. Pos(+)- Authors supports idea 4. Bracket- conclusion 5. Bracket and mark "Ev"- Evidence supporting conclusion. 6. Ex- examples enclosed in evidence. Don't confuse with Ev.
Elaborate on how Kaplan uses the word "Assumption" 1. Closes the gap between evidence and conclusion. 2. What must be true in order for the conclusion to be correct. 3. Information taken for granted- the missing link to the argument. 4. The evidence and conclusion will contain similar content- the gap, or outlying factor, will be the assumption. 5. The information mentioned out of the blue or the idea/statement that does not match up.
Kaplan's (4) steps to "Logical Reasoning" 1. Identify the question type 2. Break down the stimulus 3. Make the prediction 4. Evaluate the answer choices
Elaborate "breaking down the stimulus" utilized in "Logical Reasoning" 1. Find the conclusion 2. Identify the evidence 3. Specify the authors assumption
List the notation used for identifying wrong answers 180- The opposite of the authors assumption Extreme- Provides more detail than required to draw a conclusion Out of Scope (OOS)- Answer is not relevent to topic/question
Detail the alternative way to structure stimulus components to better understand the content in "Logical Reasoning" After identifying the components: "Conclusion, because (evidence)" - Easier to establish which part of the evidence is missing (Assumption)
What is Kaplan's Core Skill #3 Understanding Formal Logic
Another name for "If then" statements Conditional statements
Components of conditional statements 1. Sufficient condition (Trigger) 2. Necessary Result (Result) * Contrapositive
Explain Contrapositive The logical equivalent of conditional statements: 1. Reverse the terms 2. Negate the terms 3. Know negation for "and", "or", "all", "Until", "Only if", "Unless" etc.
What is "Formal Logic Translation"? Putting statements into conditional statements to be utilized in formal logic (if then)
Contra-positive and "Logical Reasoning" notation ~= Negative -->= Then
What always comes after "Only" or "Only if" Result. Trigger- "Only"- Result
How to logically transition "Unless" "Unless" is used the same as "If Not" * Be wise with this verbiage, sentences may start with the second part in order to make sense.
5 steps to logic games 1. Overview (SEAL) 2. Sketch 3. Rules- write out. Notation. 4. Deductions- combine rules with common elements. 5. Questions- tackle easy to difficult
SEAL Logic Games Situation Entities Action Limitations
2 forms of sequencing questions 1. Strict- Definitive- laid out easily 2. Loose- Relative- contains more variables
Acronym used for making deductions- Logic Games BLEND B- blocks of entities. L- limited options. E- established entities placed definitely N- numbers. Arithmic restraints D- duplications. Entities that appear in more than one rule.
Main objectives in logical reasoning 1. Spot argument structure 2. Spot argument flaws and assumptions 3. How to strengthen and weaken arguments 4. Find inferences
What are the first (2) steps in analyzing arguments? 1. Bracket the conclusion 2. Establish the evidence
Describe the conclusion of an argument "WHAT" the author believes in. Consider the conclusion "opinionated claims".
Describe what the evidence is in an argument. "WHY" the author believes what they claim.
Conclusion keywords So As result Hence Clearly Obviously Therefore Conclusively Subsequently Thus
Evidence keywords Because Due to After all Since For the reason Provided that Given that For this reason
Contrast keywords (subsidiary conclusions) Instead Despite But Yet However
What is the one-sentence test? If a conclusion cannot be determined immediately, sum the paragraph up in one sentence- this should mark the authors point. Use context clues provided in the text.
Opinion words Should/Should not Must/must not Primarily Seems/appears Probable
Strategy for comparing multiple arguments 1. Understand each argument separately 2. Bracket conclusions and underline evidence accordingly 3. Establish what they agree about, and what they disagree about.
Kaplan (4) step method for Logical Reasoning 1. Identify the question type. Understand the task before analyzing. 2. Analyze the argument. Identify what is relevant to the task. 3. Make a prediction. Consider the possible answer before looking at the choices. 4. Evaluate the answer choices. Eliminate choices that do not match your prediction first.
List conclusion types found in the stimulus 1. Assertion of Fact 2. Recommendation 3. Prediction 4. Value Judgement 5. Comparison 6. If/then conditionals
List the common patterns associated with the stimulus 1. Use of analogy 2. Appeal to authority 3. General to specific 4. Use of example/counter example 5. Support based on survey/study 6. Support based on past pattern
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