General Educational Development Certificate SPHR Prep Flashcards on SPHR PREP, created by jay Show on 01/06/2016.
jay Show
Flashcards by jay Show, updated more than 1 year ago
jay Show
Created by jay Show almost 7 years ago

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(CH 2) WHAT ARE THE 7 STEPS OF A NEEDS ASSESSMENT. (pg. 26) 1. Describe the objective 2. Define the current situation 3. Conduct a gap analysis 4. Set priorities 5. Investigate and develop options 6. Evaluate options and determine budget impact 7. Recommend solutions
A legally enforceable agreement between two or more parties in which all parties benefit in some way. Contract (Ch. 2, pg. 26)
Similar to a contract; however part of the transaction is provided by an entity other than those who have signed the contract. Third Party Contract (Ch. 2, pg. 26)
Serves as the basis on which the product or service is obtained. It is a guide to ensure that delivery meets the organization's requirements and a means of evaluation at the end of the project. Request for Proposal (RFP) (Ch. 2, Pg. 26)
What are the steps to develop the RFP? RFP components are the following: 1. A brief description of the organization 2. Overview of the project summarizing 3. Admin details about the process 4. A clear, complete, and detailed project description 5. The name of the contact person for additional information
What is the RFP format? 1. Executive Summary 2. Vendor Qualifications 3. Project Management Plan 4. Project Team 5. Roles & Responsibilities 6. Delivery Schedule 7. Pricing Information
A _____________ provides opportunities for top-down communication by management and bottom-up communication from employees. Effective Employee Communication Strategy
Top-Down Communication Options Intranet Public Address System Posters Newsletter Individual letter to employees Flyers Bulletin board postings
Bottom Up Communication Options Open-Door Policy All-Hands Meetings Staff Meetings Brown-bag Lunches One-on-One Meetings Email Webcasts
Questions that should be answered when considering which communication option to elect. 1. What information will be provided? 2. Who is the intended audience? 3. Who will provide the information? 4. Is the information time sensitive?
(Documentation Requirements) 2 Categories of DR 1. collection and maintenance of required employment records such as application forms, tax documents and benefit records. 2. Maintenance of appropriate documentation for employment actions
Levels of discipline 1. Verbal Warning 2. First Written Warning 3. Final Written Warning 4. Decision Making Day 5. Suspension 6. Termination of Employment
Study of how adults learn. Andragogy
Developed andragogy Eduard Lindeman during the 1920s
Who expanded on Lindeman's development of Andragogy? Malcolm Knowles in the 1970s
Study of how children learn. Pedagogy
What are the 5 characteristics that form the basis of andragogy? 1. Self-concept (Autonomy and self-direction) 2. Experience (Information reserve) 3. Readiness to Learn (Direct application to current situation) 4. Orientation to Learning (Ability to apply information immediately to situations) 5. Motivation to Learn (Based on personal needs desires)
Three Types of Learners 1. Auditory - process info by hearing. 2. Visual - depend on their visual processing of info. 3. Tactile / Kinesthetic - Physical learners
(Motivation Concepts) Who developed his hierarchy of needs to explain how people meet their needs through work? This theory describes needs that begin with the most basic requirements for life and progresses through stages of growth as people strive to fill higher-level needs. Abraham Maslow
What are the five levels of needs that motivate people in the Hierarchy of Needs theory? 1. Physiological needs - most basic needs like food, shelter, etc. People at this level are motivated by actions that provide these things. 2. Safety needs - Look for ways to ensure that they're safe from physical and emotional harm. 3. Social needs - People are motivated by the desire for acceptance and belong in a social group. 4. Esteem needs - people are motivated by recognition for their achievements. 5. Self-actualization needs -motivated by opportunities to be creative and fulfill their own potential.
Who created the Operant Conditioning which is the basic theory that behavior can be changed through the use of 4 intervention strategies? B. F. Skinner - 1957
What are the 4 intervention strategies B. F. Skinner's Operant Conditioning theory? 1. Positive Reinforcement - Encourages continuation of the behavior by providing a pleasant response when the behavior exists. 2. Negative Reinforcement - Encourages continuation of the behavior by removing an unpleasant response to a behavior. 3. Punishment - Discourages future occurrence of the behavior by providing an unpleasant response when the behavior occurs. 4. Extinction - Discourages future occurrence of the behavior by ceasing to reinforce it.
Who developed the Motivation/Hygiene Theory in 1959? Frederick Herzberg
What does the Motivation/Hygiene theory convey? Known as the two-factor theory, that conveys that what makes people happy is what they do or the way they are used, and what makes people unhappy is the way they're treated. The satisfaction (motivation) factors motivate by changing the nature of the work so that people are challenged to develop their talents and fulfill their potential. The dissatisfaction (hygiene) factors motivate to the extent that they allow people to avoid unpleasant experiences.
What was a result of Herzberg's theory? The concept of job enrichment in which the significance of the tasks in a job is increased to provide challenging work and growth opportunities.
Who expanded on Maslow's work to describe the behavior of managers in their relationships with the employees? Douglas McGregor Theory X and Theory Y (1960)
What two distinct management approaches did McGregor develop? Theory X and Theory Y
Theory __ managers have a worldwide view of employees as lazy and uninterested in work and needing constant direction to complete their assignments. They also believe employees don't want to take responsibility and are interested in job security above all else. Theory X Managers
Theory __ managers believe that, given the opportunity, people will see out challenging work and additional responsibility if the work is satisfying. These managers are more likely to invite participation in the decision-making process from their subordinates. Theory Y Managers
Who developed the concept that people are constantly measuring what they put into work against what they get from work? J. Stacey Adams: Equity Theory (1963)
Who developed the theory that maintains people are motivated by the expectation of the reward they will receive when they succeed and that each individual calculates the level of effort required to receive a particular reward to determine whether the reward is worth the effort that is required to attain it. Victor Vroom Expectancy Theory (1964)
Vroom uses the following three terms to explain Expectancy Theory. 1. Expectancy 2. Instrumentality 3. Valence
According to Vroom's theory, motivation starts with an assessment by individuals about their capabilities to successfully complete an assignment. Expectancy
If individuals believe they're capable of completing an assignment, they next ask "What's in it for me?" - that is, will their effort to complete the work be the instrument for obtaining a reward for the work. Instrumentality
This is the result of calculations as to whether the possible reward is worth the effort required to successfully complete the work. Valence
Who developed the motivation theory that builds on Maslow's work and identifies three levels of needs? The premise was that people move sequentially through the levels one at a time. This theory allows for the possibility that people can work on multiple levels simultaneously. it also conveys frustration regression, which occurs when an individual falls back to a lower level in frustration at the difficulty of a higher level. Clayton Alderfer ERG Theory (1969)
What are the three levels in the ERG Theory? 1. Existence - relates to Maslow's definition of physiological and safety needs (Basic life needs) 2. Relatedness - relates to Maslow's description of social needs and the esteem we find from others. 3. Growth - This is based on the self-esteem and self-actualization concepts Maslow described.
During the 1940s, researchers moved to a new area of research and focused on the ability of leadership to be taught: anyone could become a leader with the right information. This view moved the research focus from personality traits to what leaders did to inspire people to follow them. Behavioral Theories
This type of theory of leadership seeks to explain leader effectiveness in different situations? The elements that are considered in situational theories are how the leader and followers interact and how the work is structured. Situational Theories
Types of Situational Theories 1. Blake-Mouton Managerial Grid 2. Path Goal Theory 3. Hersey-Blanchard Theory (Telling, Selling, Participating, Delegating)
To address some of the criticisms, Fred E. Fiedler developed a model known as Fiedler's ______________ __________ to address the shortcomings of situational theories Contingency Theory (Pg. 41)
What are the six leadership styles? 1. Authoritarian or Directive 2. Democratic 3. Laissez-faire 4. Coaching 5. Transactional 6. Transformational
This leadership style is effective in situations requiring immediate action or those that are life threatening. When productivity is the highest concern, authoritarian leadership may be the best style. Authoritarian or Directive
These type of leaders are the most effective in environments of highly skilled professional employees who are self motivated and accomplished tasks on their own. Democratic Leadership
These type of leaders allow group members to operate on their own. This style provides no direction or guidance and can lead to chaos if members lack confidence in their abilities. Laissez-faire Leadership
This leadership tool works with group members to develop skills and abilities so they will be able to operate independently. Coaching
This type of leadership focuses on getting the job done and seeks to do this by offering a reward in exchange for accomplishing organization goals. These types of leaders manage by exception, either by seeking out areas where rules aren't being followed and making a correction or by taking action when the goal isn't met. Transactional Leadership
This type of leadership focuses on the relationships in the group, building them to achieve organizational goals. These leaders set the ideal for the group and act as role models, inspiring excellence in the group and stimulating new ideas and perspectives. They are coaches who work with individuals to develop their skills and abilities and improve their performance. Transformational Leadership
What is the process of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing an assignment that is temporary in nature? Project Management
What are realized benefits for having a diverse workforce? 1. A diverse workforce is more creative. 2. A diverse workforce reflects the population. 3. A diverse workforce increases the candidate pool.
Self-knowledge or how well individuals know themselves. Refers to emotional intelligence and social aptitude. Intrapersonal Intelligence
Characterized by individuals who are aware of their emotions and are able to control how they react to them. These individuals are able to motivate themselves to achieve goals and are sensitive to the emotion of others and able to manage relationships with them. Emotional Intelligence
Provides an electronic means of storing employment documents, thereby reducing the need to maintain physical files. HR Information System
What are the two types of research? 1. Primary 2. Secondary
Type of research that is original Primary Research
Type of research that is based on information that has been collected or reported by others. Secondary Research
Formal method of primary research Scientific Method
What are the 5 steps of the Scientific Method? 1. Identify a problem (Absenteeism is too high) 2. Create a hypothesis (Absent rate higher with new employees) 3. Decide how to test the hypothesis (correlation analysis) 4. Collect data to verify the hypothesis (Review employee files) 5. Draw conclusion
Ways to collect data? 1. Personnel Records 2. Observations 3. Interviews 4. Focus Groups 5 Questionnaires
Two basic categories of data analysis. 1. Quantitative Analysis 2. Qualitative Analysis
Analysis tools that are based on mathematical models for measuring historical data. Quantitative Analysis
Types of Quantitative Analysis 1. Correlation - measures 2 variables to determine whether there is a relationship between them. 2. Correlation Coefficient - Describes the relationship between two variables and stated as a number between -1.0 to +1.0
Measures of Central Tendency 1. Mean Average 2. Mode 3. Median 4. Moving Average 5. Weighted Average 6. Weighted Moving Average
Examples of Time Series Forecasts (measure historic data and provide a basis for projecting future requirements) 1. Trend Analysis 2. Simple Linear Regression 3. Multiple Linear Regression 4. Simulation Models 5. Ratios
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