|The measure of audiences viewing channels and programmes. The Broadcasters’ Audience Research Board (BARB), produces figures for the broadcasting industry. Consumers of print and e-media are also measured.
|How an institution, a media product or even a person is promoted to create a particular perception or belief among the public.
|The need for a text to make money, and the effect of this on the text.
|Computer Generated Imagery (CGI)
|3D Computers graphics used for special effects in films, television programmes, commericials and simulations.
|A network of signs, written, visual, artistic or behavioural, which signify meaning that are culturally accepted and shared.
|A conduct or practice or method that is commonly accepted and has a tradition.
|Codes and Conventions
|Media texts are constructed using a number of codes and conventions including technical codes that have agreed meanings.
|Ideas that can be applied to a media text to understand it.
|This is the second order of meaning in which a wider range of associations may arise. The sign ‘red’ might signify heat, danger, sexuality, socialism and so on. These meanings are arrived at through the cultural experiences a reader/ viewer brings to the text.
|The coming together of media technologies.
|Advertising which is not obviously an ad (e.g. music promo, magazine interview)
|The legal ownership of the text. The owner gets a fee for giving permission for a media product or part of a product to be reproduced or shown.
|Segmenting audience according to social factors, such as class, gender, ethnicity, occupation
|Refers to the simplest and most obvious level of meaning of sign, be it a word, image, object or sound. For example the word ‘red’ may signify one among a number of colours. Applying the process of denotation to a media text identifies what is actually there, on the page, in the frame in a factual manner.
|The language associated with a particular situation; a set of statements or body of language on a particular topic or theme unified by common understanding. For example, in a situation comedy, the discourse might suggest that the mother rather than the father is the centrally important figure.
|The process by which the shots and sounds (and sequences of shots and sounds) are assembled into the finished narrative
|Expectations and pleasures
|Audiences understand genre through their familiarity with codes and conventions used in the text. They take pleasure in the anticipation of familiarity; they expect and take pleasure in repetition and recognition of the generic elements of content, style and form.
|A user-generated system of classifying and organizing online content into different categories by the use of metadata such as electronic tags.
|A person who controls access to the media (e.g. editor, TV executive).
|A term of classification that groups together media texts of a particular type.
|A term covering any unorthodox marketing device, involving promoting a product without paying for the promotion.
|Texts that are formed with elements from more than one genre.
|A sign which in some way resembles its object, looks like it or sounds like it.
|Particular signs we associate with particular genres.
|The opinions, beliefs and ways of thinking characteristic of a particular person, group or nation. Ideology as a media concept underpins the concepts of media representations, media audiences and media institutions.
|The organisation or company, public or privately owned that produces and/ or distributes media.
|Within a text, visual or audio references are made to other texts. It is expected that audiences will recognise such references.
|The top of the front page, which gives the title and publication date of the newspaper.
|The distinguishing characteristics of types of media products.
|The technology through which we recieve media products.
|: Products or Texts are TV/Radion programmes, films, advertisements, websites, newspapers and magazines etc produced for the audience.
|An expression which means the composition of the shot. The components are the setting, the subject, the props and include the technical aspects of photographic and design codes.
|The processes by which stories, fictional and non-fictional, are constructed by producers and understood by audiences.
|The seperation of the media audience into segments. each of which have different tastes and concerns.
|Advertising which is clearly an advertisement (e.g. poster, TV ad)
|More than one meaning, open to interpretation.
|The idea that in our society old certainties no longer apply, that with globalisation of the media and the interactive nature of the internet, the cultural meanings and forms of the media are subject to constant change.
|The inclusion of a product in sound or vision in return for cash or services.
|A strongly biased text, specifically designed to promote a particular ideology or set of values.
|The main character in a play, story or film or any person at the centre of a story or event.
|Segmenting audience according to lifestyle, mindset, attitudes.
|Public Service Broadcaster
|A broadcaster whose first responsibility is to the public, they should serve to Inform, Educate and Entertain rather than focus on commercial profit.
|The understandings taken from and brought to the text by the audience, the ways the text is understood.
|The accurate representation of real life in a text.
|What is presented to audiences is a likeness, an interpretation, a representation or even a symbol of reality. It is not reality itself. Media texts are artificial versions of the reality we perceive around us
|A text which mocks an institution or culture, e.g. Have I Got News for You, Mock the Week, both of which mock politicians.
|The timetables of programmes on television or radio.
|The positioning of programmes within the schedules to attempt to keep audiences tuned in.
|In advertising, when an ad creates a buzz and becomes newsworthy and generally talked about, so generating much wider promotion, which is free.
|The study of the meaning of signs. It derives from linguistics and seeks to understand how languages, as a system of signs or codes, communicate meaning.
|A standardised, usually oversimplified, mental picture or attitude that is held in common by members of a groups towards a person or group, place or event
|The process through which a series of media products derived from the same text is promoted in and through each other.
|The specific group of people towards whom a media text is directed.
|The ways in which shots and sounds and sequences of shots and sounds can be joined together to convey specific meanings.
|User Generated Content
|Contributions to media texts from audiences.
|The spreading of a message, like a virus. Similar to ‘word of mouth’ or ‘network marketing’, it applies to any strategy that encourages individuals to pass on a marketing message to others, creating the potential for growth of exposure and influence.
|A term coined in 2004 to describe the second generation of web based communities such as social networking sites, wikis and folksonomies. These changes are in the ways the platform of the World Wide Web or internet is used and not an update in technical specifications.
|A wiki is a software that enables documents to be written collaboratively using a web browser.