Unit 5 : Health and Fitness


AQA GCSE PE Facts Flashcards on Unit 5 : Health and Fitness, created by Cath Warriner on 01/04/2015.
Cath Warriner
Flashcards by Cath Warriner, updated more than 1 year ago
Cath Warriner
Created by Cath Warriner about 9 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
The World Health Organisation says that Health is? "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity"
Name 5 physical benefits of regularly exercising. It burns up stored fat, preventing being overweight. Tones muscles, posture will be improved. Strengthens bones. Keeps your joints flexible. Heart and lungs work more efficiently. Improves stamina and VO2 Max. Helps prevent heart disease and high blood pressure. Prevents cancers.
Name 5 mental benefits of regularly exercising. It is stimulating and enjoyable, it peps you up. Gets rid of aggression and tension. Relieves boredom and provides a challenge. Relieves stress and prevents high blood pressure. Improves your self-esteem & confidence. Helps you relax and helps you to sleep better.
Name 5 social benefits of regularly exercising. Exercise helps to make you more confident, deal with difficult people and situations. You can choose a sport to suit your personality (introvert/extrovert). A way to meet and make new friends. If you are talented you may be able to earn a career in it. Develops teamwork and co-operation, qualities need in life.
Name three non-competitive activities you could participate in to improve your health. Swimming, cycling, jogging, aerobics, zumba, spinning, ski-ing, snow boarding, mountain biking, and mountain walking.
State the benefits of taking part in a non-competitive activity. Enjoyment, fun, excitement, challenge, relaxation, stress relief, meet and make new friends, improve stamina, speed, strength, suppleness, improve posture, muscle tone, lose weight, reduce blood pressure, cholesterol levels, improve cardiac output and VO2 Max, prevent degenerative diseases, osteoporosis.
Why would swimming be a suitable activity for a 60 year old? It is non weight bearing so it will not cause damage to the joints. It develops cardio vascular endurance and muscular endurance. It can be performed at your own pace. It can be performed all year round, weather cannot postpone the session. Can go during the day at quieter times when most people are working. It is relatively cheap, there may be concessions for the elderly. Memberships are discounted if you pay upfront and commit.
Name three competitive activities you could participate in to improve your health. Netball, basketball, hockey, football, rugby league, rugby union, cyclo-cross, triathlon, biathlon, gymnastics and figure skating.
State the factors that could motivate someone to compete in a competitive activity. Competition Playing at a high standard (School, Town, District, County, Region, National team) Success (medals, trophies and titles) Occupation (semi-professional, professional) Financial (sponsorship, endorsements, prize money) Increase specific fitness (Power, Co-ordination, Balance, Agility, Reaction time and Timing)
Why is it important to perform a warm up? To avoid injury To raise body temperature To increase muscle elasticity To improve suppleness To increase breathing rate To increase VO2 Max To increase heart rate To increase stroke volume To increase cardiac output To refine techniques and skills To rehearse set pieces and progress to game pace.
What are the three phases of a warm up? Phase 1: Mobility phase A pulse raiser / continuous movement Phase 2: Stretch phase Phase 3: Technique and skill development
Why is phase 1 of a warm up performed? The mobility phase is used to: increase the body temperature Increase the elasticity of the muscle fibres Increase the breathing rate Increase the VO2 Max Increase the heart rate, tidal volume and cardiac output.
Why is phase 2 of a warm up performed? The stretch phase is used to: Further improve the elasticity of the muscle fibres to reduce the risk of injury to the athlete.
Why is phase 3 of a warm up performed? To practise techniques and skills to be used in the game. To rehearse set pieces to be used in the game. To increase effort to game pace. To psychologically prepare for the game.
Whilst exercising physical changes occur. Name three short term effects of exercise on the body. Increased heart rate and cardiac output, Increased breathing rate and VO2 Max, Increased gaseous exchange in the muscles, Increase in body temperature resulting in increasing the muscle elasticity, Red face and sweating, Build up of lactic acid in the muscles leading to cramp and fatigue.
Following a hard training session an athlete would need to perform a warm down. How does a warm down help the athlete to recover? A warm down gradually decreases the body temperature, heart rate and breathing rate. If an athlete stops suddenly the blood pools in the veins resulting in lactic acid remaining in the muscles causing muscle stiffness and soreness. Increasing the depth of breathing will breakdown the lactic acid and remove it, repaying the oxygen debt. Pooling can also lower the blood pressure leading to light headedness and dizziness. Performing stretches lengthens the muscles preventing the muscles from aching the following day. A warm down allows the athlete to mentally relax.
Describe a suitable warm down an athlete would perform after a game. The athlete will participate in an aerobic phase: They would perform a variety of mobility exercises like jogging, side steps, heel flicks, high knees and gradually lower the intensity to a steady pace by going into a walk. They would then perform a stretch phase: Static stretches are held for up to 10 seconds. Stretches will be used to relax the muscles that have been used in the sporting activity.
As well as performing a warm down a good recovery routine is needed. What would an athlete do to aid recovery? Take an ice bath. Have a massage. Rehydrate - take on fluids. Eat a meal containing carbohydrates and protein to re-energise and help the growth and repair of muscles. Get plenty of rest and sleep
Taking part in regular sporting activity will develop many long term benefits to the athlete. Name 5 long term benefits of exercise. Improve muscle tone and posture. Lose weight. Relieve stress and tension. Helps you to sleep better. Reduces the chances of injury and illness. Reduce the risk of high blood pressure, heart attacks and strokes. Reduce cholesterol levels. Improve general and specific fitness (5 S's and PC BART)
What does inherent mean? Something you are born with. The percentage of fast twitch and slow twitch fibres an athlete has is determined by their parents genes.
What is fitness? The physical ability to meet the demands of the environment.
What is general fitness? Concerns the day to day working of your body. It is also known as health related fitness because it helps to keep you healthy and cope with day to day demands.
What are the components of general fitness? (5 S's) Suppleness Speed Strength Stamina Somatotype
What is the definition of suppleness? Give an example of an everyday activity and a sporting example for suppleness. Suppleness: the range of movement around a joint. Fastening your shoe laces A gymnast performing the splits.
To improve suppleness an athlete needs to regularly stretch. What are the three stretching methods? Active Static Passive
What is active stretching? Extend a limb beyond its normal limitation through repeated rhythmic movement. Heel flicks, high knees, side steps and lunges
What is static stretching? Extend the limb, beyond its normal range. Hold the position for at least 10 seconds, rest and repeat the stretch.
What is passive stretching? Your partner moves the limb being excercised to its end position and keeps it there for a few seconds.
Explain the reasons why suppleness is so important in diving. Suppleness creates extension, improving posture and the aesthetics of the the performance resulting in better form and style which increases the scores by the judges in the competition resulting in the diver achieving a podium position. Improved suppleness will minimise the risk of injury during training and competition and allow them to perform the higher tariff moves including more twists and rotations.
Explain why suppleness is so important to a 100m sprinter. The sprinter will have a greater stride length which will allow the athlete to cover the ground faster and win more races. They will also have less risk of suffering from an injury as tearing a muscle can be a problem for some athletes as they explode out of the blocks.
What is the definition of speed? Give an example of an everyday activity and a sporting example for speed. Speed: The ability to move all or parts of the body as quickly as possible. Running for the bus 100m sprinter
What is the definition of strength? Give an example of an everyday activity and a sporting example for strength. Strength: The ability to bear weight. The maximum force the muscles can exert against a resistance. Carrying the shopping bags Weight training
What are the three types of strength? Static Explosive Dynamic
What is the definition of static strength? Give three sporting examples. The greatest amount of force that can be applied to an immovable object. Rugby scrum Hercules Hold Handstand Head stand Static wall squat
What is the defintion of dynamic strength? Name three sporting examples. The muscular strength needed to support your own body weight over a prolonged period of time. Gymnastics: Pommel horse Rings Asymmetric bars
What is the definition of explosive strength? Give three sporting examples. The muscular strength used in one short, sharp movement. The combination of speed and strength. Sprinter leaving the blocks Throwing the discus Vault in gymnastics
Some sports use all three types of strength. Explain how each type of strength is used in Rugby. Rugby: Static strength to push against the other pack in a rugby scrum. Explosive strength to take a tap penalty and then sprint. Dynamic strength to last the whole of an 80 minute match.
Some sports use all three types of strength. Explain how each type of strength is used in Gymnastics. Gymnastics: In a floor routine static strength is used to hold a handstand. Explosive strength is used when tumbling. Dynamic strength is used to enable the gymnast to perform and complete their routine.
What is the definition of stamina? Give an example of an everyday activity and a sporting example for stamina. Stamina: The ability of the heart and lungs to keep operating efficiently during an endurance event. Walking 3 miles to school Cycling
There are two types of stamina. What are they? Cardio-vascular stamina and Muscular stamina
What is the difference between cardio vascular and muscular endurance? Cardio vascualr endurance: This involves the working of the heart and lungs for a prolonged period of time. Muscular endurance: This involves repeated muscular contraction whilst avoiding lactic acid building up in the muscles which results in fatigue.
What is somatotype? The bodies shape and composition.
What are the three types of somatotype? Give an example of each. Mesomorph: high % of muscle 100m sprinter Ectomorph: high % of bone High jumper Endomorph: high % of fat Sumo wrestler
Athletes need to develop specific fitness. What is specific fitness? The level beyond general fitness where you are able to meet the higher, more specific demands of a sport. Training must develop fitness, techniques and skills if you want to succeed.
What are the six components of specific fitness? (PCBART) Power Co-ordination Balance Agility Reaction Time Timing
What is the definition of Power? Give a sporting example. The combination of the maximum amount of speed with the maximum amount of strength. A 100m sprinter coming out of the blocks.
What is the defintion of co-ordination? Give a sporting example. The ability to link all parts of a movement into one efficient smooth movement. Timing to intercept the ball in netball.
What is the defintion of balance? Give a sporting example. The ability to maintain a given posture in static and dynamic situations and be able to stay level and stable. Gymnast on a balance beam.
What is the defintion of agility? Give a sporting example. This is the combination of flexibility and speed and is the ability to move quickly, changing direction and speed when ever possible. Goal Keeper changing direction following a deflection.
What is the defintion of reaction time? Give a sporting example. This is the time taken for the body, or part of the body to respond to a stimulus. A 100m sprinter responding to the starting gun.
What is the definition of timing? Give a sporting example. Is the ability to coincide movements in relation to external factors. Judging when to tackle and take the ball cleanly in football.
For a named physical activity explain in detail which two componenets of specific fitness are needed and the impact they will have on the performance. (6 marks) Netball A defender in netball will need to have good balance. It is essential when marking the ball when a shooter is taking a shot at goal. It is important to be able to reach over the ball whilst keeping one metre away from the opponents landing foot and not fall into the player causing an obstruction. This would result in a penalty pass or shot being awarded to the opposition. A defender will need to have power in their legs to enable them to jump high to collect a rebound at the post and regain posession of the ball. A defender will then need to have good power in their arms to deliver a fast accurate pass to a fellow player to maintain posession of the ball.
There specific training requirements of games players depends on the stage of the season. What are the three phases of a playing season? Pre Season (Period of preparartion) Peak Season (Playing season) Closed Season (Out of season)
Name phase 1 and explain what occurs during this period. Pre Season: Preparation time focusing on: Strength training for the muscles used in the sport. Development of mobility and power by training at speed. Techniques and strategies are developed specific to their sport.
Name phase 2 and explain what occurs during this period. Peak Season: The competitive period when matches are played each week. Training focuses on enhancing skills at speed at game pace. Game situations focus on tactics and set pieces, they must be well rehearsed.
Name phase 3 and explain what occurs during this period. Closed Season: A period of rest and recovery. Injuries need time to heal properly. Players must maintain general fitness by participating in some form of exercise. Must pay attention to diet to avoid gaining weight.
An aspiring 100m sprinter would dream of competing in a national and international competition. What is the difference? National Competition is within your own country, competing against individuals and clubs from each county. International means you are representing your country against other countries from around the world.
Can you name three international events a 100m sprinter could compete in? Olympic Games Commonwealth Games IAAF World Championships
Explain why an international athlete needs to train more regularly than a club performer. The demands on an international athlete are greater as they have to compete at a faster rate at a higher level. They would therefore have to improve their speed, strength and stamina to cope with these demands. Basic levels of fitness would not be sufficient, performers would need to have a high level of specific fitness. Most club athletes take part to keep fit. An international athlete needs to be fit to compete.
Explain how it is possible for a professional athlete to be fit but not healthy. You can have high levels of physical fitness but have an unhealthy lifestyle: Take drugs Smoke Drink excessively Eat an unbalanced diet (high % salt, sugar and fat) Lack of sleep
Fatigue can occur during an intense training session. What is fatigue? A feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness, when muscles get so tired that they can no longer continue to work properly, you may have to stop performing.
What are the signs of fatigue? Pain Muscles ache Cramp Joints stiffen Red face Deep breathing Increased pulse
What are the effects of fatigue? Lower levels of stamina Lower level of concentration Mistakes can be made Higher risk of accidents occuring Higher risk of injuries occuring May be substituted
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