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The Gastrointestinal System- Physiology- PMU

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The Gastrointestinal System- Physiology- PMU

Question 1 of 113

1

The term ‘metabolism’:

Select one of the following:

  • refers to all the chemical reactions that occur in the body

  • includes the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones

  • includes the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones

  • includes anabolism and catabolism

  • all of the above

Explanation

Question 2 of 113

1

Which of the following statements concerning energy storage in the body is true?

Select one of the following:

  • most is stored in the form of ATP

  • most is stored in the form of glucose

  • most is stored in the form of fat

  • most is stored in the form of protein

  • most is stored in the form of DNA

Explanation

Question 3 of 113

1

The enzyme amylase is secreted by:

Select one of the following:

  • liver and duodenum

  • duodenum and pancreas

  • salivary glands and liver

  • pancreas and salivary glands

  • stomach and duodenum

Explanation

Question 4 of 113

1

An example of absorption is the:

Select one of the following:

  • movement of food by peristalsis

  • active transport of glucose into a villus

  • hydrolysis of a peptide into amino acids

  • release of secretin in the presence of HCL

  • c and d

Explanation

Question 5 of 113

1

Chewing food aids digestion by:

Select one of the following:

  • stimulating the release of bile

  • increasing the surface area of the food

  • breaking up large protein molecules into peptides

  • breaking down carbohydrates

  • breaking down fats

Explanation

Question 6 of 113

1

A function of the small intestine is to:

Select one of the following:

  • secrete bile

  • filter waste

  • make vitamins

  • absorb nutrients

  • secrete HCL

Explanation

Question 7 of 113

1

The main source of energy in food is:

Select one of the following:

  • proteins

  • vitamins

  • nucleic acids

  • carbohydrates

  • lipids

Explanation

Question 8 of 113

1

Which of the following has the lowest pH?

Select one of the following:

  • gastric juice

  • hepatic bile

  • pancreatic juice

  • saliva

  • secretion of the intestinal glands

Explanation

Question 9 of 113

1

Calcium absorption is facilitated by:

Select one of the following:

  • hypercalcaemia

  • oxalates in the diet

  • iron overload

  • 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol

  • increased Na+ absorption

Explanation

Question 10 of 113

1

When parietal cells are stimulated, they secrete:

Select one of the following:

  • HCL and intrinsic factor

  • HCL and pepsinogen

  • HCL and HCo3-

  • HCO3- and intrinsic factor

  • mucus and pepsinogen

Explanation

Question 11 of 113

1

Secretion of HCL by the gastric parietal cells is needed for:

Select one of the following:

  • activation of pancreatic lipases

  • activation of salivary lipases

  • activation of intrinsic factor

  • conversion of pepsinogen into pepsin

  • formation of micelles

Explanation

Question 12 of 113

1

Fat absorption occurs mainly in the:

Select one of the following:

  • stomach

  • duodenum

  • terminal ileum

  • caecum

  • sigmoid colon

Explanation

Question 13 of 113

1

The movements of the small intestine are:

Select one of the following:

  • mixing contraction

  • propulsive contraction

  • antiperistaltic contraction

  • hunger contraction

  • a and b

Explanation

Question 14 of 113

1

Where the protein hydrolysis occurs:

Select one of the following:

  • oral cavity

  • stomach

  • small intestine

  • esophagus

  • b, and c

Explanation

Question 15 of 113

1

Which of the following organs or tissues is most dependent upon a constant blood supply of glucose?

Select one of the following:

  • liver

  • brain

  • adipose tissue

  • skeletal muscle

  • cardiac muscle

Explanation

Question 16 of 113

1

After a fatty meal is taken, most of the fat would be:

Select one of the following:

  • absorbed in the portal circulation and transported to the liver

  • absorbed in the portal vein and transported in the hepatic artery

  • absorbed as chylomicrons in the lymphatic system

  • absorbed as triglycerides into the portal vein and bypasses the liver

  • absorbed in the duodenum

Explanation

Question 17 of 113

1

For fat digestion:

Select one of the following:

  • bile salts are the most efficient emulsifiers

  • gastric lipase is the most important

  • pancreatic lipase in the duodenum is the most important

  • digestion takes place in micelles

  • micelles attach to enterocyte receptor

Explanation

Question 18 of 113

1

Gastric acid secretion is decreased by:

Select one of the following:

  • vagal inhibition

  • ingestion of protein

  • noradrenaline

  • M1-cholinergic antagonist show the same efficacy at reducing gastric acid secretion

  • distension of bowel wall

Explanation

Question 19 of 113

1

Release of which one of the following increases the pH of duodenal contents?

Select one of the following:

  • secretin

  • gastrin

  • intrinsic factor

  • cholecystokinin

  • gastrin releasing peptide

Explanation

Question 20 of 113

1

In the small intestine, glucose is absorbed:

Select one of the following:

  • passively

  • by secondary active transport (coupled to Na transport)

  • by facilitated diffusion

  • by co-transport with chloride

  • actively by insulin dependent uptake

Explanation

Question 21 of 113

1

After ingestion of a meal:

Select one of the following:

  • digestion of fat and carbohydrate begins in the mouth while protein digestion begins in the stomach

  • carbohydrates are digested in the mouth and proteins in the stomach

  • proteins are digested in mouth and fats and carbohydrates in stomach

  • most fluid and electrolytes are absorbed in the large bowel

  • composition of the food has no effect on transit time through the bowel

Explanation

Question 22 of 113

1

Calcium uptake in the intestine:

Select one of the following:

  • is passive

  • requires a carrier protein on the mucosal side

  • is by facilitated diffusion

  • is less than 10% of dietary intake

  • is facilitated by phosphate

Explanation

Question 23 of 113

1

Which one of the following is a water soluble vitamin?

Select one of the following:

  • vit. A

  • vit. B

  • vit. D

  • vit. E

  • vit. K

Explanation

Question 24 of 113

1

In the duodenum in response to acidic chyme is released:

Select one of the following:

  • cholecystokinin

  • gastrin

  • secretin

  • peptide

  • amylase

Explanation

Question 25 of 113

1

In the GI tract. the layer, responsible for absorption and secretion is:

Select one of the following:

  • mucosa

  • submucosa

  • muscularis

  • serosa

  • adventitia

Explanation

Question 26 of 113

1

The digestive enzyme, produced in the salivary glands and the pancreas is:

Select one of the following:

  • maltase

  • amylase

  • pepsin

  • nuclease

  • lipase

Explanation

Question 27 of 113

1

This keeps the chyme in the stomach until it reaches the right consistency to pass into the small intestine:

Select one of the following:

  • esophageal sphincter

  • Intrinsic sphincter

  • cardiac sphincter

  • pyloric sphincter

  • duodenal sphincter

Explanation

Question 28 of 113

1

Most of the chemical and mechanical digestion is carried out within:

Select one of the following:

  • pylorus

  • fundus

  • stomach

  • large intestine

  • small intestine

Explanation

Question 29 of 113

1

Parietal cells secrete:

Select one of the following:

  • serotonin

  • mucus

  • pepsinogen

  • hydrochloric acid

  • gastrin

Explanation

Question 30 of 113

1

The cells at the base of fundic or oxyntic glands are:

Select one of the following:

  • chief cells

  • G cells

  • enteroendocrine cells

  • goblet cells

  • parietal cells

Explanation

Question 31 of 113

1

The chyme movement and flow into the stomach is controlled by:

Select one of the following:

  • nervous system

  • pancreas

  • various digestive system hormones

  • liver

  • both the nervous system and various digestive system hormones

Explanation

Question 32 of 113

1

The function of the ileum is to:

Select one of the following:

  • absorb nutrients

  • absorb vitamin B12 and bile salts

  • introduce bile and pancreatic juices

  • absorb alcohol and aspirin

  • all of the above

Explanation

Question 33 of 113

1

Gastrointestinal hormones:

Select one of the following:

  • are secreted by exocrine glands of the gut mucosa and affect metabolism

  • are secreted into the blood stream by specialised cells in the gut walls and modulate its motor and secretory activity

  • are secreted by the gastric walls and protect the gut mucosa from the effect of HCL and proteolytic enzymes

  • are situated in the epithelial intestinal cells (enterocytes) and control the cell metabolism of nutrients

  • are secreted by the gastric walls and colon and protect the gut mucosa from the effect of HCL and proteolytic and nucleic enzymes

Explanation

Question 34 of 113

1

The gastrointestinal enzymes;

Select one of the following:

  • are situated in the epithelial cells (enterocytes) and control cell metabolism

  • are secreted into the blood stream by specialized cells in the gut walls and modulate its motor and secretory activity

  • are secreted by exocrine glands of the gut mucosa and break down nutrients

  • are secreted by the gastric walls and protect the gut mucosa from the effect of HCL and proteolytic enzymes

  • are secreted by the gastric walls into the small intestine and protect the gut mucosa om the effect of HCL, proteolytic and nucleic enzymes

Explanation

Question 35 of 113

1

Which enzymes are secreted with the gastric juice:

Select one of the following:

  • pepsinogene and lipase

  • pepsinogene, tripsinogene and maltase

  • pepsinogene, lipase and HCL

  • protcolytic, lipolytic and amylolytic enzymes

  • protcolytic, nucleolytic, lipolytic and amylolytic enzymes

Explanation

Question 36 of 113

1

Which enzymes are secreted with the pancreatic juice:

Select one of the following:

  • lipolytic: lipase and esterase

  • proteolytic: trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastase, carboxypeptidase, etc

  • amilolitic: amylase, maltase, sacharase, lactase

  • nucleic: RNA-ase and DNA-ase

  • all of the above

Explanation

Question 37 of 113

1

The enzymes, secreted with the intestinal juice are:

Select one of the following:

  • exopeptidases, lipase, maltase, nucleic (nuclease, nucleotidases, nucleosidases)

  • endo- and exopeptidases, esterase and amylolytic enzymes

  • aminopeptidase, dipeptidase, nuclease and llpase

  • aminopeptidase, dipeptidase, nuclease, somatostatin, secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin

  • trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastase and lipase

Explanation

Question 38 of 113

1

Which of the bile components are important for digestion:

Select one of the following:

  • secretin and hepatocrinin

  • bile salts, phospholipids, cholesterol

  • acid phosphatase, secretin and hepatocrinin

  • proteolytic, lipolytic and amylolytic enzymes

  • cholecystokinin-pancreozimin and hepatocrinin

Explanation

Question 39 of 113

1

The humoral factors inhibiting gastric motility are:

Select one of the following:

  • Gastrin

  • GIP, catecholamines, secretin, somatostatin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin

  • Secretin and cholccystokinin-pancreozimin

  • Gastrin and motilin

  • Intestinal hormones, somatostatin, secretin and cholecystockinin-pancreozimin

Explanation

Question 40 of 113

1

The humoral factors stimulating gastric motility are:

Select one of the following:

  • Catecholamines, secretin, gastric peptide, somatostatin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin

  • Secretin and cholecystokinim-pancreozimin

  • Motilin and gastrin

  • GIP, VlP, somatostalin, secretin and cholecystokinin-pancrezimin

  • Gastrin, histamine, secretin

Explanation

Question 41 of 113

1

The humoral factors that stimulate intestinal motility are:

Select one of the following:

  • catecholamines and intestinal hormones

  • secretin and hepatocrinin

  • secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin, GlP, VIP, substance P and bombesin

  • intestinal hormones

  • gastin, secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin and hepatocrinin

Explanation

Question 42 of 113

1

The humoral factor's that inhibit gastric secretion are:

Select one of the following:

  • Gastrin, histamme, acetylcholine, cholecystokinin-pancreozinin, bombesin, motilin

  • Secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin, somatostatin, catecholamines

  • GIP, secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin, VIP, enterogastrone

  • Enkephalines, endorphines, angiotensinogens

  • Corticoglomerolotropin, prolactin, substance P

Explanation

Question 43 of 113

1

Which humoral factors stimulate gastric secretion:

Select one of the following:

  • Secretin, cholecystokinin-somatostatin

  • Secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin, histamine, acetylcholine, bombesin,motilin, meat and vegetable extracts

  • VIP, somatostatin, GIP, cholecystokinin-pancrcosimin

  • Corticoglomerulotropin, prolactin, substance P

  • Gastrin, histamine, secretin

Explanation

Question 44 of 113

1

The physiological effect of gastrin on gastric secretion is:

Select one of the following:

  • increased amount of gastric juice of low acidity and high proteolytic activity

  • to decrease the amount of gastric juice

  • decreased amount of gastric juice of high acidity and low proteolytic activity

  • increased amount of gastric juice of high acidity and low proteolytic activity

Explanation

Question 45 of 113

1

The physiological effect of histamine on gastric secretion is:

Select one of the following:

  • increased amount of gastric juice of high acidity and low proteolytic activity

  • to decrease the amount of the gastric juice

  • increased amount of gastric juice of low acidity and high proteolytic activity

  • increased amount of gastric juice of high acidity and high proteolytic activity

Explanation

Question 46 of 113

1

The humoral factors that stimulate the formation and secretion of bile are:

Select one of the following:

  • angiotensin, thyroxine, somatostatin

  • glucagon, calcitonin, VIP

  • secretin, gastrin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin, bile salts

  • catecholamines, glucagon, calcitonin, VIP

  • alkaline and acid phosphatase

Explanation

Question 47 of 113

1

The humoral factors that inhibit the formation and secretion of bile are:

Select one of the following:

  • secretin, gastrin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin, acetylcholine

  • catecholamines, no

  • alkaline and acid phosphatase

  • angiotensin, tiroxin, somatostatin

  • insulin, glucagon, cathecholamines, growth hormone, glucocorticoids, thyroid hormones

Explanation

Question 48 of 113

1

The humoral factors that stimulate the secretion of pancreatic juice are:

Select one of the following:

  • glucagon, calcitonin, somatostatin

  • tripsin, amilase, lipase

  • secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin, gastrin, serotonin, VlP, insulin

  • somatostatin, GIP

  • glucagon, insulin, catecholamines, growth hormone, glucocorticoids, thyroid hormones

Explanation

Question 49 of 113

1

The carbohydrates are absorbed as:

Select one of the following:

  • mono- and disaccharides

  • glucose and glycogen

  • monosaccharides - pentoses and hexoses

  • glucosamines

  • glucose, glycogen, glucosamine

Explanation

Question 50 of 113

1

The hormones regulating carbohydrate metabolism (synthesis, catabolism) are:

Select one of the following:

  • androgenes, estrogenes, progesteron, adrenoglomerulotropin

  • insulin, glucagon, catecholamines, growth hormone, glucocorticoids (ACTH), T3 and T4 (TTH)

  • somatostatin, bombesin, gastrin, histanime, kinins

  • glucagon, calcitonin, somatostatin, calecholamines, serotonin

  • catecholamines, glucagon, dehydroepiandroserone, somatotropin

Explanation

Question 51 of 113

1

The hormones that increase significantly the basic metabolic rate are:

Select one of the following:

  • Insulin and glucocorticoids

  • Glucagon and parathyroid hormone

  • Testosterone and estrogens

  • T3, T4, catecholamines and glucocorticoids

  • Insulin and growth hormone

Explanation

Question 52 of 113

1

Glucose enters the blood stream via:

Select one of the following:

  • absorption in the mouth

  • gluconeogenesis in the skeletal muscles

  • enterocytes' absorption, liver glycogen catabolism, hepatocytes and kidneys gluconeogenesis, renal proximal tubule
    epitheliocytes

  • degradation of glycogen in the skeletal muscles

  • glucogenolisis in the hepatocytes

Explanation

Question 53 of 113

1

The basal metabolic rate is the energy consumption of the body under the following conditions:

Select one of the following:

  • adequate intake of vitamins regulating the intermediate processes of metabolism of the various substances

  • normal function of the endocrine glands

  • physical and psychic rest, 12 hours after the last meal in a room at a temperature of 20-22°C

  • during physical activity

  • during sleep, pregnancy or lactation

Explanation

Question 54 of 113

1

The chief cells of the stomach glands secrete:

Select one of the following:

  • enzymes

  • hydrochloric acid

  • mucus

  • gastrointestinal hormones

  • autonomously active substances

Explanation

Question 55 of 113

1

The humoral and pharmacological factors inhibiting salivary secretion are:

Select one of the following:

  • catecholamines

  • cholinolytics

  • adrenominetics

  • catecholamines, cholinolytics, adrenomimetics

  • adrenolytics and cholinomimetics

Explanation

Question 56 of 113

1

Humoral factors taking part in the calcium/phosphorus homeostasis are:

Select one of the following:

  • parathyroid hormone and thyroxin

  • parathyroid hormone, thyrocalcitonin and vitamin D3

  • thyrocalcitonin and epinephrine

  • thyrocalcitonin and aldosteron

  • antidiuretic hormone, androgens and angiotensin II

Explanation

Question 57 of 113

1

The body requires amino acids to:

Select one of the following:

  • produce new red blood cells

  • produce new protein

  • replace damaged red blood cells

  • replace damaged protein

  • b and d

Explanation

Question 58 of 113

1

Which of the following will catalyze the breakdown of starches?

Select one of the following:

  • protease

  • amylase

  • lipase

  • sucrase

  • peptidase

Explanation

Question 59 of 113

1

Which molecule represents the storage form of glucose in the liver?

Select one of the following:

  • glycogen

  • glucagon

  • disaccharide

  • lactic acid

  • carbonic acid

Explanation

Question 60 of 113

1

As far as bile is considered:

Select one of the following:

  • contains enzymes required for the digestion of fat

  • contains unconjugated bilirubin

  • bile salts make cholesterol more water-soluble

  • pigments contain iron

  • becomes more alkaline during storage in the gallbladder

Explanation

Question 61 of 113

1

Saliva:

Select one of the following:

  • from different salivary glands has a similar composition

  • contains enzymes essential for the digestion of proteins

  • has less than half the ionic calcium level of plasma

  • has more than twice the iodide level of plasma

  • has a pH between 5 and 6

Explanation

Question 62 of 113

1

Swallowing is a reflex which:

Select one of the following:

  • has its reflex centres in the cervical segments of the spinal cord

  • is initiated by a voluntary act and includes inhibition of respiration

  • has its reflex centres in the thoracic segments of the spinal cord

  • is not dependent on intrinsic nerve networks in the esophagus

  • is more effective when the person is lying down rather than when standing

Explanation

Question 63 of 113

1

Appetite for food is increased:

Select one of the following:

  • by the secretion of cholecystokinin

  • by the secretion of calcitonin

  • when the stomach is distended

  • the stomach is denervated

  • the environment is cold

Explanation

Question 64 of 113

1

Secretion of saliva increases when;

Select one of the following:

  • atropine is applied

  • the month is flushed with fluids with a pH of about 7

  • the subject thinks of unappetizing food

  • epinephrine is applied

  • the saliva glands parasympathetic nerve supply is stimulated

Explanation

Question 65 of 113

1

Defecation is a reflex action:

Select one of the following:

  • that is coordinated by reflex centres in the sacral cord

  • whose afferent limb carries impulses from stretch receptors in the colon

  • whose efferent limb travels mainly in sympathetic autonomic nerves

  • which is more likely to be initiated just before a meal than just after it

  • which can be unvoluntarily inhibited or facilitated

Explanation

Question 66 of 113

1

In the stomach:

Select one of the following:

  • pH rarely falls below 4.0

  • pepsinogen is converted to pepsin by hydrochloric acid

  • ferrous iron is reduced to ferric iron by hydrochloric acid

  • acid secretion is inhibited by pentagastrin

  • there is a rise in the bacterial count after histamine H1 receptor blockade

Explanation

Question 67 of 113

1

Intestinal juice contain:

Select one of the following:

  • potassium in a concentration similar to that in extracellular fluid

  • enzymes that are released when the vagus nerve is inhibited

  • enzymes that hydrolyze disaccharides

  • enzymes that hydrolyze monosaccharides

  • enzymes that suppress pancreatic proteolyic enzymes

Explanation

Question 68 of 113

1

Pancreatic secretion:

Select one of the following:

  • in response to vagal stimulation is copious, rich in bicarbonate but poor in enzymes

  • in response to acid in the duodenum is scanty but rich in enzymes

  • to response to secretin secretion is low in bicarbonate

  • contains enzymes that digest neutral fat to glycerol and fatty acids

  • contains enzymes that convert disaccharides to monosaccharides

Explanation

Question 69 of 113

1

The liver is the principal site for:

Select one of the following:

  • synthesis of plasma albumin

  • synthesis of plasma globulins

  • synthesis of vitamin B12

  • storage of vitamin C

  • activation of some polypeptide hormones

Explanation

Question 70 of 113

1

The gastric juice:

Select one of the following:

  • is secreted when the vagus nerves are stimulated

  • is secreted in vagotomized animals when food IS chewed but not swallowed

  • activates the digestive enzymes secreted with saliva

  • digests the gastric mucosa because it is not protected by a pepsin inactivator

  • does not imitate the oesophageal mucosa if regurgitated from the stomach

Explanation

Question 71 of 113

1

The respiratory quotient:

Select one of the following:

  • is the volume of 02 consumed to the volume of CO2 produced ratio

  • depends essentially on the type of substrate being metabolized and is 1.0 when the substrate is glucose

  • is 1.0 in conditions of metabolic alcalosis

  • is between 0.9 and 1.0 in the second week of fasting

  • is above 0.8 if fats are mainly metabolized

Explanation

Question 72 of 113

1

Oxygen consumption tends to increase when the:

Select one of the following:

  • concentration of oxygen in inspired air rises

  • metabolic rate falls

  • body temperature rises and environmental temperature falls

  • environmental temperature increases

  • before a meal is ingested

Explanation

Question 73 of 113

1

Brown fat is:

Select one of the following:

  • relatively more abundant in adults than in infants

  • richer in mitochondria than ordinary fat and has an extensive sympathetic innervation

  • produces less heat and more ATP than other tissues

  • stimulated to generate more but when its parasympathetic nerve supply is stimulated

  • less important than shivering in neonatal thermoregulation

Explanation

Question 74 of 113

1

Nitrogen balance:

Select one of the following:

  • is the relationship between the body's nitrogen intake and nitrogen loss

  • is usually negative in childhood

  • becomes more positive when dietary protein is decreased

  • becomes positive whenever a single essential amino acid is omitted from the diet

  • becomes less negative in the final stages of fatal starvation

Explanation

Question 75 of 113

1

The normally innervated stomach:

Select one of the following:

  • is stimulated to secrete gastric juice when food is chewed, even if it is not swallowed

  • secrete HCL when its H1- histamine receptors are blocked

  • increases gastric secretion when there are fear and depression

  • empties slower than the denervated stomach

  • is stimulated to secrete gastric juice by the hormone secretin

Explanation

Question 76 of 113

1

The passage of acidic gastric contents to the duodenum may cause:

Select one of the following:

  • copious secretion of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate

  • increased gastric motility

  • relaxation of the gallbladder

  • contraction of the sphincter of Oddi

  • inhibition of pancreozymin secretion

Explanation

Question 77 of 113

1

Bile salts:

Select one of the following:

  • derived from cholesterol, are the only constituents of bile necessary for digestion

  • have a characteristic molecule, being water-soluble

  • are reabsorbed mainly in the upper small intestine

  • increase surface tension

  • are absorbed in the colon

Explanation

Question 78 of 113

1

The specific dynamic action of food:

Select one of the following:

  • is the decrease in metabolic rate that results from ingestion of food

  • persists for about an bout after a meal is ingested

  • is due to the additional energy expended in digesting and absorbing the food

  • results in about 30 per cent of the may value of ingested protein being unavailable for other purposes

  • results in about 20 per cent of the energy value of ingested fat and carbohydrate being unavailable for other purposes

Explanation

Question 79 of 113

1

Secretion of gastric juice:

Select one of the following:

  • decreases when food stimulates mucosal cells in the pyloric region

  • is associated with a decrease in the pH of venous blood during the stomach

  • in response to food is increased after vagotomy

  • is essential for carbohydrate digestion

  • is essential for absorption of vitamin B12

Explanation

Question 80 of 113

1

In the small intestine:

Select one of the following:

  • the enzyme concentration in intestinal juice is higher in the ileum than in the jejunum

  • vitamin B12 is absorbed mainly in the jejunum

  • water absorption is independent on the active absorption of sodium and glucose

  • absorption of calcium occurs mainly in the terminal ileum

  • glucose absorption is dependent on sodium absorption

Explanation

Question 81 of 113

1

The cells of the liver:

Select one of the following:

  • help to maintain the normal blood glucose level

  • deaminate amino acids to form NH4+ which is excreted as ammonium salts in the urine

  • synthesize Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)

  • manufacture most of the immune globulins

  • activate steroid hormones manufactured in the gonads

Explanation

Question 82 of 113

1

Absorption of dietary fat:

Select one of the following:

  • can only occur after the neutral fat has been split into glycerol and fatty acids

  • does not depend on their size

  • is impaired when bile salt reabsorption is prevented by resection of the terminal ileum

  • is carried out by passive diffusion

  • is greatest in the lower parts of the small intestine

Explanation

Question 83 of 113

1

One gram of:

Select one of the following:

  • carbohydrate, metabolized in the body, yields more energy when oxidized in a bomb calorimeter

  • fat, metabolized in the body, yields no per cent more energy than 1g of carbohydrate

  • protein, metabolized in the body, yields the same energy as when oxidized in a bomb calorimeter

  • carbohydrate, metabolized in the body, yields about the same energy as 1g of protein

  • protein per kg body weight is not the adequate daily protein intake for a sedentary adult

Explanation

Question 84 of 113

1

Cholesterol:

Select one of the following:

  • can be absorbed from the gut by intestinal lymphatics following its incorporation into chylomicrons

  • can be synthesized in the spleen

  • in the diet comes mainly from vegetable sources

  • is eliminated from the body mainly by metabolic degradation

  • is a precursor of adrenal medulla hormones

Explanation

Question 85 of 113

1

Free (non-esterified) fatty acids in plasma:

Select one of the following:

  • are provided to fat cells and other tissues by chylomicrons and VLDL

  • are bound to albumins

  • decrease when the level of blood adrenaline rises

  • can be metabolized to release energy in smooth muscle

  • are not synthesized in the fat depots where they are stored

Explanation

Question 86 of 113

1

lmpaired intestinal absorption of:

Select one of the following:

  • iron occurs frequently following removal of most of the stomach

  • iodine leads to a reduction in size of the thyroid gland

  • water occurs in infants who cannot digest lipids

  • calcium may occur following removal of the terminal ileum

  • bile salts may occur following resection of the stomach

Explanation

Question 87 of 113

1

Peptic ulcer pain is typically relieved by:

Select one of the following:

  • raising the pH of the fluid bathing the ulcer and a drug blocking the gastric proton pump

  • a drug decreasing the pH

  • H2 stimulators

  • a drug which interferes with the action of acetylcholinesterase

  • a drug which stimulates the gastric proton pump

Explanation

Question 88 of 113

1

Fat stores In the adult:

Select one of the following:

  • make up less than 5% of average body weight

  • make up a smaller percentage of body weight in women than in men

  • release fatty acids when there is increased sympathetic nerve activity

  • release fatty acids when insulin is injected

  • enlarge by increasing the number of adipocytes they contain

Explanation

Question 89 of 113

1

Metabolic rate can be estimated from measurements of:

Select one of the following:

  • total heat loss

  • the calorific value of the food consumed m the previous 24 hour

  • oxygen consumption and the respiratory quotient

  • carbon dioxide production and the respiratory quotient

  • c and d

Explanation

Question 90 of 113

1

Complications that may arise after total gastrectomy include

Select one of the following:

  • depletion of vitamin B12 stores in the liver

  • malabsorption of fat due to rapid intestinal transit

  • impaired defaecation due to loss of the gastrocolic reflex

  • inability to digest protein

  • a and b

Explanation

Question 91 of 113

1

Severe diarrhoea causes a decrease in:

Select one of the following:

  • body potassium

  • antidiuretic hormone level

  • extracellular fluid volume

  • total vascular peripheral resistance

  • a and b

Explanation

Question 92 of 113

1

Urobilinogen is:

Select one of the following:

  • a mixture of colourless compounds also known as stercobilinogen

  • formed in the reticuloendothelial system from bilirubin

  • absorbed from the intestine

  • excreted mainly in the urine

  • a and c

Explanation

Question 93 of 113

1

Surgical removal of 90 % of the small intestine may cause a decrease in:

Select one of the following:

  • the fat content of the stools

  • bone mineralization (osteomalacia)

  • extracellular fluid volume

  • blood haemoglobin level

  • body weight

Explanation

Question 94 of 113

1

Lack of pancreatic juice in the duodenum may lead to:

Select one of the following:

  • the presence of undigested meat fibres in the stools

  • an increase in the fat content of the films

  • a decrease in the fat of the faeces

  • a high prothrombin level in blood

  • a and b

Explanation

Question 95 of 113

1

Gastric:

Select one of the following:

  • acid secretion in response to a lowered blood gugar is mediated by the hormone gastrin

  • emptying is facilitated by sympathetic nerve activity

  • acid secretion increases when histamine H2 , muscarinic M1 or gastrin receptors are activated

  • acid secretion is inhibited by the presence of food In the duodenum

  • c and d

Explanation

Question 96 of 113

1

Constipation is a recognized consequence of:

Select one of the following:

  • psychological stress

  • abnormality of the autonomic nerve supply to the esophagus

  • a diet that leaves little unabsorbed residue in the gut

  • over-activity of the thyroid gland as in thyrotoxicosis

  • a and c

Explanation

Question 97 of 113

1

Absorption of glucose by intestinal mucosal cells:

Select one of the following:

  • relies on a carrier mechanism in the cell membrane

  • is blocked not by the same agents that block renal reabsorption of glucose

  • is enhanced by blockade of active sodium transport in the cells

  • takes place mainly in the ileum

  • does not involve the same carriers that are used for the absorption of galactose

Explanation

Question 98 of 113

1

Muscle tone in the lower oesophagus is:

Select one of the following:

  • lower than tone in the middle oesophagus

  • a major factor in preventing heartburn

  • increased in pregnancy

  • decreased by gastrin

  • increased by anticholinergic drugs

Explanation

Question 99 of 113

1

Which of the following are incorrectly paired:

Select one of the following:

  • pancreatic alpha amylase-starch

  • elastase-tissue rich in elastin

  • renin-coagulated milk

  • enteropeptidase-trypsinogen

  • phospholipase A2-phospholipids

Explanation

Question 100 of 113

1

All are GIT hormones except:

Select one of the following:

  • cholecystokinin

  • gastrin

  • secretin

  • erythropoietin

  • somatosmin

Explanation

Question 101 of 113

1

Iron Is absorbed in:

Select one of the following:

  • stomach

  • duodenum

  • jejunum

  • ileum

  • colon

Explanation

Question 102 of 113

1

in infants, defecation often follows a meal. The cause of colonic contractions in this situation is:

Select one of the following:

  • gastro-ileal reflex

  • increased circulating levels of CCK

  • gastrocolic reflex

  • enterogastric reflex

  • decreased circulating levels of gastrin

Explanation

Question 103 of 113

1

Which of the following has the highest pH:

Select one of the following:

  • gastric juice

  • pancreatic juice

  • bile in GB

  • secretions of intestinal glands

  • saliva

Explanation

Question 104 of 113

1

Man is unable to digest:

Select one of the following:

  • dextrin

  • glucose

  • cellulose

  • glycogen

  • maltose

Explanation

Question 105 of 113

1

Steatorrhoea may be cooled by all factors except:

Select one of the following:

  • pancreatectomy

  • gastrin secreting tumor

  • resection of distal ileum

  • hemolytic jaundice

  • increascd amount of fat in the stools

Explanation

Question 106 of 113

1

Normal swallowing is dependent on the integrity of the:

Select one of the following:

  • 9 and 10 cranial nerves

  • pyramidal tract

  • trigeminal nerve

  • appetite center of hypothalamus

  • neurons, secreting VIP

Explanation

Question 107 of 113

1

Secretion of the intrinsic factor occurs in

Select one of the following:

  • parietal cells of the stomach

  • chief cells of the stomach

  • upper abdomen

  • alpha cells of pancreas

  • cells of the parotid gland

Explanation

Question 108 of 113

1

In which of the following is absorption of water greatest:

Select one of the following:

  • colon

  • jejunum

  • duodenum

  • stomach

  • mouth

Explanation

Question 109 of 113

1

Secretin is released by:

Select one of the following:

  • acid in duodenum

  • acid in stomach

  • cells in the liver

  • distention of colon

  • gallbladder

Explanation

Question 110 of 113

1

Vit D is essential for normal:

Select one of the following:

  • Fat absorption

  • Ca absorption

  • ADH secretion

  • Protein absorption

  • Glucose absorption

Explanation

Question 111 of 113

1

Gastrin secretion is increased by:

Select one of the following:

  • acid in the lumen of stomach

  • calcitonin

  • secretin

  • vagal discharge

  • a and b

Explanation

Question 112 of 113

1

Saliva is responsible for all except:

Select one of the following:

  • deglutition

  • dental cares prevention

  • complete digestion of proteins

  • the concentration of iodine

  • maintaining the oral pH at about 7.0

Explanation

Question 113 of 113

1

Carbonic anhydrase has a role to play in the formation of:

Select one of the following:

  • HCL by the parietal cells of the stomach

  • carbaminhaemoglobin

  • cerebrospinal fluid in the choroid plexuses

  • bile salts

  • a and b

Explanation