Most historians consider Alexander Hamilton to have been a successful Secretary of the Treasury because he
expanded trade with all nations
established a sound financial plan for the new nation
eliminated tariffs between the states
opposed payment of previous federal government debts
As Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton was most noted for
devising a plan to pay off the nation's debts
beginning a system to tax exports
arranging necessary loans from European nations
raising revenue from the sale of western lands
One major reason that Alexander Hamilton proposed a national bank was to
improve the economic position of the United States government
help state governments collect taxes
make loans available to owners of small farms
reduce foreign investment in the United States
One reason James Madison and Thomas Jefferson objected to Alexander Hamilton's financial policies was that they believed
the establishment of a national bank was unconstitutional
a laissez-faire policy would not help the country's economy
the government should encourage industrial development
high tariffs were needed to protect America's economic interests
Which action during Washington's administration led to the Whiskey Rebellion in western Pennsylvania?
passage of a new excise tax
establishment of a presidential cabinet
creation of the Bank of the United States
ban on slavery in the Northwest Territory
Conflicts between Jeffersonians and Hamiltonians during President George Washington's first administration led directly to the
end of the Era of Good Feelings
decision to replace the Articles of Confederation
addition of the elastic clause to the Constitution
start of the first political parties
-Alien and Sedition Acts
-Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
These pieces of legislation reflected the conflict between
Congress and the president
states' rights and federal supremacy
the military and the civilian government
the United States Supreme Court and the state courts
The decision in Marbury v. Madison (1803) expanded the power of the Supreme Court by
restricting the use of the elastic clause
establishing the power of judicial review
upholding the constitutionality of the National Bank
interpreting the interstate commerce clause
How did Supreme Court decisions under Chief Justice John Marshall affect government in the United States?
Federal power increased at the expense of the states.
Strict limits were placed on congressional use of the elastic clause.
The impeachment of federal judges was declared unconstitutional.
State powers under the 10th Amendment were expanded.
On what grounds would strict constructionists of the United States Constitution have questioned the purchase of the Louisiana Territory?
It violated the guarantee of stats' rights
The president was not specifically given the power to purchase new land.
Congress was opposed the expansion west of the Mississippi River.
The Constitution applied only to the original thirteen states
How did President George Washington react to the conflict between France and England in 1793?
He used the opportunity to begin the war for American independence.
He declared the neutrality of the United States.
He aided the French because they had supported the American Revolution.
He negotiated a peace settlement between the warring nations.
"'Tis [It is] or true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world...."
-----President George Washington, Farwell Address, 1796
The United States was able to follow this advice from President Washington for several decades primarily because of
industrial and agricultural self-sufficiency
strong support from other Western Hemisphere nations
geographic isolation from Europe
peaceful relations between the European powers
The foreign policies of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and James Monroe were similar in that they each
supported wars against England
failed to acquire new territory
attempted to avoid involvement in European affairs
aided the French in return for their help during the Revolutionary War
Which is an example of the concept of Manifest Destiny in action?
The Missouri Compromise
the annexation of Mexican territory
the Transatlantic Slave Trade
the Compromise of 1850
During the first half of the 19th century, territorial expansion led to
increased tensions over slavery
improved relations with bordering nations
fewer conflicts with Native American Indians
decreased domestic demand for manufactured goods
In the mid-1800s, the growth of the populations of California and the western territories was mainly a result of the
discovery of gold and silver
opening of the Panama Canal
migration of freedmen after the Civil War
secession of the Southern states
As a result of President Andrew Jackson's policies, Native American Indians were
relocated to reservation in Mexico
forcibly removed to areas west of the Mississippi River
gradually allowed to return to their ancestral lands
given United States citizenship
Why were James Fennimore Cooper's novels "The Last of the Mohicans" and "The Pathfinder" considered the first "American" novels?
Cooper focused on themes of the frontier that were prominent in American culture.
Cooper imitated the formal style of European essays.
Cooper wrote on the current political themes of abolition and temperance.
Cooper used European attitudes and values to form his American themes.
Prior to 1850, what was a main reason the North developed and economy increasingly based on manufacturing while the South continued to rely on an economy based on agriculture?
Protective tariffs applied only to northern seaports.
Geographic conditions supported different types of economic activity.
Slavery in the North promoted rapid economic growth.
Manufacturers failed to make a profit in the South
Which group's numbers increased the most as a result of the industrial Revolution?
urban middle class
owners of small farms
Which statement describes a result of the Industrial Revolution in the United States?
Farm production decreased.
Slavery in the South increased.
The population of the cities decreased.
Immigration to the United States increased.
In an outline, which main topic would include the other three?
19th-Century Internal Improvements
What economic change resulted from the transportation revolution before the Civil War?
The Northeast became better connected to the western section of the country
Trade between the United States and Europe was sharply reduced.
The system of slavery on southern plantations began to disappear.
The federal government began to regulate new businesses
The Major purpose of the Monroe Doctrine (1823) was to
create a military alliance for the defense of North America
guarantee democratic governments in Latin America
secure new colonies in the Caribbean
limit European influence in the Western Hemisphere
From 1820 to 1865, the debates over nullification, protective tariffs, and the spread of slavery into the new territories concerned the constitutional issue of the
balance of power between the federal and state governments
balance between rights of individuals and the need to maintain order
protection of the rights of ethnic and racial groups
separation of power between the executive and legislative branches
President Andrew Jackson claimed that use of the spoils system increased democracy in the federal government because it
removed property-holding qualifications for voting
limited the role of the Electoral College in presidential elections
allowed larger numbers of citizens to hold office
used nominating conventions to pick political party candidates
The Declaration of Sentiments from the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 proclaimed that
the abolition of slavery was necessary
all men and women are created equal
California should be admitted as a free state
the sale of alcoholic beverages should be illegal
Base your answer to question 28 on the information below and on your knowledge of social studies.
To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives in Congress Assembled, We the undersigned, citizens of the United States, but deprived of some of the privileges and immunities of citizens among which, is the right to vote, beg leave to submit the following resolution: Resolved; that we the officers and members of the National Woman Suffrage Association, in convention assembled, respectfully ask Congress to enact appropriate legislation during its present session to protect
women citizens in the several states of this Union, in their right to vote.
— Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1873) Source: National Archives and Records Administration
This resolution illustrates the constitutional right to
petition for redress of grievances
protection against unreasonable search and seizure
a speedy and public trial
freedom of religion
During the 1840s, abolitionists opposed annexation of new western territory because they
feared the admission of new slave states
wanted to limit the power of the national government
were concerned with the legal rights of Native American Indians
supported an isolationist foreign policy
“A house divided against itself cannot stand. . . . I do not expect the Union to be dissolved; I do not expect the house to fall; but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing or all the other. . . .”
— Abraham Lincoln, 1858
The “divided house” referred to in this speech was caused primarily by
war with Mexico
the suffrage movement
The Missouri Compromise (1820), and the Compromise of 1850 were both efforts to
end fighting between Midwestern farmers and Native American Indians
encourage manufacturing in the West
increase the number of people who voted in presidential elections
settle disputes over the spread of slavery to the western territories
In the Kansas- Nebraska Act of 1854, popular sovereignty was proposed as a way to
allow northern states the power to ban slavery
deny southern states the legal right to own slaves
allow settlers in new territories to vote on the issue of slavery
overturn previous Supreme Court decisions on slavery
Base your answer to question 33 on the poster to the left and on your knowledge of social studies.
passage of the fugitive slave law
start of the Civil War
issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation
enactment of the 13th Amendment
One way that “Bleeding Kansas,” the Dred Scott decision, and John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry had a similar effect on the United States was that these events
ended conflict over slavery in the territories
eased tensions between the North and the South
contributed to the formation of the Whig Party
made sectional compromise more difficult
“. . . Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!”
— Daniel Webster, 1830
The principle expressed in this statement was also reflected in
Thomas Jefferson’s call for nullification of the Alien and Sedition Acts
Federalist Party threats during the War of 1812
John Calhoun’s defense of States rights
Abraham Lincoln’s attitude toward Southern secession
As the Civil War began, President Abraham Lincoln stated that his primary goal was to
set new national boundaries
increase congressional powers
preserve the Union
Actions Taken by President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War
I. Increased the size of the army without congressional authorization
II. Arrested and jailed anti-Unionists without giving a reason
III. Censored some anti-Union newspapers and had some editors and publishers arrested
Which statement is most clearly supported by these actions of President Lincoln?
Wartime emergencies led President Lincoln to expand his presidential powers.
President Lincoln was impeached for violating the Constitution.
Checks and balances effectively limited President Lincoln’s actions.
President Lincoln wanted to abolish the Bill of Rights.
The Civil War affected the northern economy by
causing a severe depression
increasing unemployment rates
decreasing demand for agricultural products