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VMRCVM Gen Vet Med class of 2016. Lecture 4.

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Anaphylaxis

Question 1 of 11

1

Anaphylaxis can be defined as:

Select one of the following:

  • A systemic hypersensitivity reaction that can cause multi-organ failure and is often an emergency.

  • A severe Type I hypersensitivity reaction.

  • An immune response mediated almost exclusively by IgG and IgM.

  • The inability to breathe due to swollen airways.

Explanation

Question 2 of 11

1

Generally Type I hypersensitivity reactions require multiple exposures to an agent before occurring.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Explanation

Question 3 of 11

1

Potentiation of mast cell degranulation is most often attributed to:

Select one of the following:

  • Not removing the inciting agent.

  • Patient stress.

  • Histamine release.

  • Organ failure and an inability to compensate.

Explanation

Question 4 of 11

1

Clinical signs that accompany anaphylaxis may include: (select all that apply)

Select one or more of the following:

  • Pruritis, wheals, or edema on the skin.

  • Bronchodilation.

  • Increased gastric motility.

  • Hypertension.

Explanation

Question 5 of 11

1

A localized anaphylactic reaction has the potential to progress to a systemic anaphylactic reaction.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Explanation

Question 6 of 11

1

Which of the following is true?

Select one of the following:

  • Dogs are more likely to present with dyspnea, collapse, and excessive mucous production as signs of anaphylaxis than are cats.

  • Cats are more likely present with dyspnea, collapse, and excessive mucous production as signs of anaphylaxis than are dogs.

  • Cats are more likely to present with cutaneous lesions as signs of anaphylaxis than are dogs.

  • More than one of these answer choices is correct.

Explanation

Question 7 of 11

1

Like anaphylactic reactions, anaphylactoid reactions require previous sensitization, but occur more frequently on the third or fourth exposure than on the second.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Explanation

Question 8 of 11

1

The difference between localized and systemic anaphylaxis is:

Select one of the following:

  • The immunoglobulins involved, as the skin creates a different type of immunoglobulin than does the blood.

  • Where the exposure occurred, for example a bee sting in the skin versus ingesting an allergen.

  • Localized anaphylaxis is characterized by histamine as a mediator of degranulation, whereas localized anaphylaxis relies on serotonin.

  • Localized anaphylaxis tends to be restricted to one location (often the skin), whereas systemic anaphylaxis involves 2 or more organ systems.

Explanation

Question 9 of 11

1

Why is epinephrine such a key player in the treatment of systemic anaphylaxis?

Select one of the following:

  • It reduces mast cell degranulation.

  • It increases heart rate, and the subsequent increased movement of blood through the system pulls fluid from the interstitial spaces and reduces edema.

  • It promotes bronchoconstriction, allowing a patient to slow their breathing and take deeper breaths.

  • It induces peripheral vasodilation, allowing for better tissue perfusion.

Explanation

Question 10 of 11

1

Which of the following follows appropriate dosing protocol for epinephrine? Select all that apply.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Continuous rate infusion at 0.05 mg/kg/min

  • Intratracheal dose at 0.02-0.04 mg/kg, diluted.

  • IV dose at ~0.05-0.1 mL/10 lbs

Explanation

Question 11 of 11

1

Dexmethasone:

Select one of the following:

  • Is an antihistamine that can be given either orally (1 mg/lb) or IM (1-2 mg/kg).

  • Is an anti-inflammatory that can be given IV (0.1-0.2 mg/kg).

  • Is the name of a complex anaphylactic treatment protocol that involves extensive analgesics, sedatives, antihistamines, and fluids.

  • Is much better at addressing hypotension than is epinephrine.

Explanation