What are the symptoms of an infectious disease caused by?
Why can microorganisms reproduce rapidly in suitable conditions?
What are white blood cells, and what do they do?
Why are memory cells useful?
How do vaccinations provide protection from microorganisms?
What does a vaccine usually contain?
Why is it necessary to vaccinate a high percentage of the population to prevent epidemics of infectious diseases?
Why can't vaccines and medicines be completely risk-free?
Why do people react differently to medicines and vaccines?
What can antimicrobials be used for?
What are antibiotics?
What can lead to varieties which are less effected by antimicrobials?
Why may bacteria and fungi become resistant to antimicrobials?
What can be done to reduce antibiotic resistance?
How are new medicines first tested for safety?
What are the two stages to human trials?
What is the difference between 'open-label', 'blind', and 'double-blind' human trials?
Why are these used?
What is the importance of long-term human trials?
What are the ethical issues related to using placebos during human trials?
Describe the role of the heart as a d____ p___ in the circulatory system.
Why do heart muscle cells need their own blood supply?
What is the structure of arteries, veins, and capillaries?
How are they suited to their functions?
How can heart rate be measured?
What do blood pressure measurements record?
How is a blood pressure measurement given?
Why are 'normal' measurements for heart rate and blood pressure given within a range?
How can fatty deposits in the blood vessels supplying the heart muscles produce a heart attack?
What is heart disease caused by?
What can reduce the risk of heart disease?
How are factors which effect the risk of heart disease identified?
Why does high blood pressure increase the risk of heart disease?
How can the misuse of drugs increase the risk of a heart attack?
What is homeostasis?
What is the function of automatic control systems in the body?
How do these automatic control systems work?
What is a negative feedback system?
Why is a a balanced water level important?
How are water levels balanced?
How do kidneys balance water levels?
What controls the concentration of urine?
How is ADH secretion controlled?
What can drinking alcohol lead to?
What can taking Ecstasy lead to?